For Sale – Apple iMac 27″ 5K Late 2015 (i7, 16GB, SSD)

First time selling here on AvForums, hope everything is laid out as it’s meant to be. So here goes:

Selling my iMac 27 inch 5K Late 2015 model. Reason for sale is that I found work outside the UK and I’d rather sell this than going through the hassle of transporting it. If it doesn’t sell by the 15th of September I’ll archive this thread and make arrangements to take it with me. Price is non negotiable, I’ve priced this so it sells fast. If it doesn’t, like said I’ll pack it up and take it with me. Overall the iMac is in mint condition. There is one hairline scratch on the bottom of the frame which shows only when light is directed towards that area. Apart from that, I can’t see any scratches on the aluminium frame but there might be hairlines scratches on the base of it and some very small ones here and there but I just checked and can’t see anything else.


27 inch 5K Retina screen – No faults, no dead pixels, no scratches.
CPU: i7 6700K at 4ghz.
Memory: 16GB (2X8gb) DDR3L 1866mhz
HD: Apple proprietary 512GB SSD (Apple SMO512G), faster than your average SSD, google it.
GPU (Graphics card): AMD Radeon R9 M395X with 4GB of GDDR5 memory.
Comes with Apple wireless keyboard and Apple trackpad.



Any questions please do ask.

Price and currency: £1000
Delivery: Goods must be exchanged in person
Payment method: Bank Transfer
Location: Milton Keynes
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

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  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
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DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

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Wanted – Cheap MacBook Pro

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Discussion in ‘Laptop, Notebook & Macbook Classifieds‘ started by thelaughingman, Sep 7, 2019 at 7:39 PM.

  1. thelaughingman

    Well-known Member

    Aug 2, 2011
    Products Owned:
    Products Wanted:
    Trophy Points:

    Hi all,

    I Have always wanted to try out a MacBook Pro and so am looking for a cheap one just to see how i get on with it.

    Let me know if you have one.

    Location: Derby

    This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
    By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
    Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

    • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
    • Name and address including postcode
    • Valid e-mail address

    DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

  2. GeneticMutation

    Active Member

    Sep 7, 2011
    Products Owned:
    Products Wanted:
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Building cloud-native applications with Azure and HashiCorp

With each passing year, more and more developers are building cloud-native applications. As developers build more complex applications they are looking to innovators like Microsoft Azure and HashiCorp to reduce the complexity of building and operating these applications. HashiCorp and Azure have worked together on a myriad of innovations. Examples of this innovation include tools that connect cloud-native applications to legacy infrastructure and tools that secure and automate the continuous deployment of customer applications and infrastructure. Azure is deeply committed to being the best platform for open source software developers like HashiCorp to deliver their tools to their customers in an easy-to use, integrated way. Azure innovation like the managed applications platform that power HashiCorp’s Consul Service on Azure are great examples of this commitment to collaboration and a vibrant open source startup ecosystem. We’re also committed to the development of open standards that help these ecosystems move forward and we’re thrilled to have been able to collaborate with HashiCorp on both the CNAB (Cloud Native Application Bundle) and SMI (Service Mesh Interface) specifications.

Last year at HashiConf 2018, I had the opportunity to share how we had started to integrate Terraform and Packer into the Azure platform. I’m incredibly excited to get the opportunity to return this year to share how these integrations are progressing and to share a new collaboration on cloud native networking. With this new work we now have collaborations that help customers connect and operate their applications on Azure using HashiCorp technology.

Connect — HashiCorp Consul Service on Azure

After containers and Kubernetes, one of the most important innovations in microservices has been the development of the concept of a service mesh. Earlier this year we partnered with HashiCorp and others to announce the release of Service Mesh Interface, a collaborative, implementation agnostic API for the configuration and deployment of service mesh technology. We collaborated with HashiCorp to produce a control rules implementation of the traffic access control (TAC) using Consul Connect. Today we’re excited that Azure customers can take advantage of HashiCorp Consul Services on Azure powered by the Azure Managed Applications platform. HashiCorp Consul provides a solution to simplify and secure service networking and with this new managed offering, our joint customers can focus on the value of Consul while confident that the experts at HashiCorp are taking care of the management of the service. Reducing complexity for customers and enabling them to focus on cloud native innovation.

Provision — HashiCorp Terraform on Azure

HashiCorp Terraform is a great tool for doing declarative deployment to Azure. We’re seeing great momentum with adoption of HashiCorp Terraform on Azure as the number of customers has doubled since the beginning of the year – customers are using Terraform to automate Azure infrastructure deployment and operation in a variety of scenarios. 

The momentum is fantastic on the contribution front as well with nearly 180 unique contributors to the Terraform provider for Azure Resource Manager. The involvement from the community with our increased 3-week cadence of releases (currently at version 1.32) ensures more coverage of Azure services by Terraform. Additionally, after customer and community feedback regarding the need for additional Terraform modules for Azure, we’ve been working hard at adding high quality modules and now have doubled the number of Azure modules in the terraform registry, bringing it to over 120 modules. 

We believe all these additional integrations enable customers to manage infrastructure as code more easily and simplify managing their cloud environments. Learn more about Terraform on Azure.

Microsoft and HashiCorp are working together to provide integrated support for Terraform on Azure. Customers using Terraform on Microsoft’s Azure cloud are mutual customers, and both companies are united to provide troubleshooting and support services. This joint entitlement process provides collaborative support across companies and platforms while delivering a seamless customer experience. Customers using Terraform Provider for Azure can file support tickets to Microsoft support. Customers using Terraform on Azure support can file support tickets to Microsoft or HashiCorp.

Deploy — Collaborating on Cloud Native Application Bundles specification

One of the critical problems solved by containers is the hermetic packaging of a binary into a package that is easy to share and deploy around the world. But a cloud-native application is more than a binary, and this is what led to the co-development, with HashiCorp and others, of the Coud Native Application Bundle (CNAB) specification. CNABs  allow you to package images alongside configuration tools like Terraform and other artifacts to allow a user to seamlessly deploy an application from a single package. I’ve been excited to see the community work together to build the specification to a 1.0 release that shows CNAB is ready for all of the world’s deployment needs. Congratulations to the team on the work and the fantastic partnership.

If you want to learn more about the ways in which Azure and HashiCorp collaborate to make cloud-native development easier, please check out the links below:

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Author: Microsoft News Center

Windows 10 SDK Preview Build 18975 available now! – Windows Developer Blog

Today, we released a new Windows 10 Preview Build of the SDK to be used in conjunction with Windows 10 Insider Preview (Build 18975 or greater). The Preview SDK Build 18975 contains bug fixes and under development changes to the API surface area.The Preview SDK can be downloaded from developer section on Windows Insider.
For feedback and updates to the known issues, please see the developer forum. For new developer feature requests, head over to our Windows Platform UserVoice.

This build works in conjunction with previously released SDKs and Visual Studio 2017 and 2019. You can install this SDK and still also continue to submit your apps that target Windows 10 build 1903 or earlier to the Microsoft Store.
The Windows SDK will now formally only be supported by Visual Studio 2017 and greater. You can download the Visual Studio 2019 here.
This build of the Windows SDK will install on only on Windows 10 Insider Preview builds.
In order to assist with script access to the SDK, the ISO will also be able to be accessed through the following static URL:

Message Compiler (mc.exe)
Now detects the Unicode byte order mark (BOM) in .mc files. If the If the .mc file starts with a UTF-8 BOM, it will be read as a UTF-8 file. Otherwise, if it starts with a UTF-16LE BOM, it will be read as a UTF-16LE file. If the -u parameter was specified, it will be read as a UTF-16LE file. Otherwise, it will be read using the current code page (CP_ACP).
Now avoids one-definition-rule (ODR) problems in MC-generated C/C++ ETW helpers caused by conflicting configuration macros (e.g. when two .cpp files with conflicting definitions of MCGEN_EVENTWRITETRANSFER are linked into the same binary, the MC-generated ETW helpers will now respect the definition of MCGEN_EVENTWRITETRANSFER in each .cpp file instead of arbitrarily picking one or the other).
Windows Trace Preprocessor (tracewpp.exe)
Now supports Unicode input (.ini, .tpl, and source code) files. Input files starting with a UTF-8 or UTF-16 byte order mark (BOM) will be read as Unicode. Input files that do not start with a BOM will be read using the current code page (CP_ACP). For backwards-compatibility, if the -UnicodeIgnore command-line parameter is specified, files starting with a UTF-16 BOM will be treated as empty.
Now supports Unicode output (.tmh) files. By default, output files will be encoded using the current code page (CP_ACP). Use command-line parameters -cp:UTF-8 or -cp:UTF-16 to generate Unicode output files.
Behavior change: tracewpp now converts all input text to Unicode, performs processing in Unicode, and converts output text to the specified output encoding. Earlier versions of tracewpp avoided Unicode conversions and performed text processing assuming a single-byte character set. This may lead to behavior changes in cases where the input files do not conform to the current code page. In cases where this is a problem, consider converting the input files to UTF-8 (with BOM) and/or using the -cp:UTF-8 command-line parameter to avoid encoding ambiguity.
Now avoids one-definition-rule (ODR) problems caused by conflicting configuration macros (e.g. when two .cpp files with conflicting definitions of TLG_EVENT_WRITE_TRANSFER are linked into the same binary, the TraceLoggingProvider.h helpers will now respect the definition of TLG_EVENT_WRITE_TRANSFER in each .cpp file instead of arbitrarily picking one or the other).
In C++ code, the TraceLoggingWrite macro has been updated to enable better code sharing between similar events using variadic templates.
Signing your apps with Device Guard Signing

Removal of api-ms-win-net-isolation-l1-1-0.lib
In this release api-ms-win-net-isolation-l1-1-0.lib has been removed from the Windows SDK. Apps that were linking against api-ms-win-net-isolation-l1-1-0.lib can switch to OneCoreUAP.lib as a replacement.
Removal of IRPROPS.LIB
In this release irprops.lib has been removed from the Windows SDK. Apps that were linking against irprops.lib can switch to bthprops.lib as a drop-in replacement.

The following APIs have been added to the platform since the release of Windows 10 SDK, version 1903, build 18362.

namespace Windows.AI.MachineLearning {
public sealed class LearningModelSessionOptions {
bool CloseModelOnSessionCreation { get; set; }
namespace Windows.ApplicationModel {
public sealed class AppInfo {
public static AppInfo Current { get; }
Package Package { get; }
public static AppInfo GetFromAppUserModelId(string appUserModelId);
public static AppInfo GetFromAppUserModelIdForUser(User user, string appUserModelId);
public interface IAppInfoStatics
public sealed class Package {
StorageFolder EffectiveExternalLocation { get; }
string EffectiveExternalPath { get; }
string EffectivePath { get; }
string InstalledPath { get; }
bool IsStub { get; }
StorageFolder MachineExternalLocation { get; }
string MachineExternalPath { get; }
string MutablePath { get; }
StorageFolder UserExternalLocation { get; }
string UserExternalPath { get; }
IVectorView GetAppListEntries();
RandomAccessStreamReference GetLogoAsRandomAccessStreamReference(Size size);
namespace Windows.ApplicationModel.AppService {
public enum AppServiceConnectionStatus {
AuthenticationError = 8,
DisabledByPolicy = 10,
NetworkNotAvailable = 9,
WebServiceUnavailable = 11,
public enum AppServiceResponseStatus {
AppUnavailable = 6,
AuthenticationError = 7,
DisabledByPolicy = 9,
NetworkNotAvailable = 8,
WebServiceUnavailable = 10,
public enum StatelessAppServiceResponseStatus {
AuthenticationError = 11,
DisabledByPolicy = 13,
NetworkNotAvailable = 12,
WebServiceUnavailable = 14,
namespace Windows.ApplicationModel.Background {
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementPublisherTrigger : IBackgroundTrigger {
bool IncludeTransmitPowerLevel { get; set; }
bool IsAnonymous { get; set; }
IReference PreferredTransmitPowerLevelInDBm { get; set; }
bool UseExtendedFormat { get; set; }
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementWatcherTrigger : IBackgroundTrigger {
bool AllowExtendedAdvertisements { get; set; }
namespace Windows.ApplicationModel.ConversationalAgent {
public sealed class ActivationSignalDetectionConfiguration
public enum ActivationSignalDetectionTrainingDataFormat
public sealed class ActivationSignalDetector
public enum ActivationSignalDetectorKind
public enum ActivationSignalDetectorPowerState
public sealed class ConversationalAgentDetectorManager
public sealed class DetectionConfigurationAvailabilityChangedEventArgs
public enum DetectionConfigurationAvailabilityChangeKind
public sealed class DetectionConfigurationAvailabilityInfo
public enum DetectionConfigurationTrainingStatus
namespace Windows.ApplicationModel.DataTransfer {
public sealed class DataPackage {
event TypedEventHandler ShareCanceled;
namespace Windows.Devices.Bluetooth {
public sealed class BluetoothAdapter {
bool IsExtendedAdvertisingSupported { get; }
uint MaxAdvertisementDataLength { get; }
namespace Windows.Devices.Bluetooth.Advertisement {
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementPublisher {
bool IncludeTransmitPowerLevel { get; set; }
bool IsAnonymous { get; set; }
IReference PreferredTransmitPowerLevelInDBm { get; set; }
bool UseExtendedAdvertisement { get; set; }
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementPublisherStatusChangedEventArgs {
IReference SelectedTransmitPowerLevelInDBm { get; }
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementReceivedEventArgs {
BluetoothAddressType BluetoothAddressType { get; }
bool IsAnonymous { get; }
bool IsConnectable { get; }
bool IsDirected { get; }
bool IsScannable { get; }
bool IsScanResponse { get; }
IReference TransmitPowerLevelInDBm { get; }
public enum BluetoothLEAdvertisementType {
Extended = 5,
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementWatcher {
bool AllowExtendedAdvertisements { get; set; }
public enum BluetoothLEScanningMode {
None = 2,
namespace Windows.Devices.Bluetooth.Background {
public sealed class BluetoothLEAdvertisementPublisherTriggerDetails {
IReference SelectedTransmitPowerLevelInDBm { get; }
namespace Windows.Devices.Display {
public sealed class DisplayMonitor {
bool IsDolbyVisionSupportedInHdrMode { get; }
namespace Windows.Devices.Input {
public sealed class PenButtonListener
public sealed class PenDockedEventArgs
public sealed class PenDockListener
public sealed class PenTailButtonClickedEventArgs
public sealed class PenTailButtonDoubleClickedEventArgs
public sealed class PenTailButtonLongPressedEventArgs
public sealed class PenUndockedEventArgs
namespace Windows.Devices.Sensors {
public sealed class Accelerometer {
AccelerometerDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class AccelerometerDataThreshold
public sealed class Barometer {
BarometerDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class BarometerDataThreshold
public sealed class Compass {
CompassDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class CompassDataThreshold
public sealed class Gyrometer {
GyrometerDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class GyrometerDataThreshold
public sealed class Inclinometer {
InclinometerDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class InclinometerDataThreshold
public sealed class LightSensor {
LightSensorDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class LightSensorDataThreshold
public sealed class Magnetometer {
MagnetometerDataThreshold ReportThreshold { get; }
public sealed class MagnetometerDataThreshold
namespace Windows.Foundation.Metadata {
public sealed class AttributeNameAttribute : Attribute
public sealed class FastAbiAttribute : Attribute
public sealed class NoExceptionAttribute : Attribute
namespace Windows.Globalization {
public sealed class Language {
string AbbreviatedName { get; }
public static IVector GetMuiCompatibleLanguageListFromLanguageTags(IIterable languageTags);
namespace Windows.Graphics.Capture {
public sealed class GraphicsCaptureSession : IClosable {
bool IsCursorCaptureEnabled { get; set; }
namespace Windows.Graphics.DirectX {
public enum DirectXPixelFormat {
SamplerFeedbackMinMipOpaque = 189,
SamplerFeedbackMipRegionUsedOpaque = 190,
namespace Windows.Graphics.Holographic {
public sealed class HolographicFrame {
HolographicFrameId Id { get; }
public struct HolographicFrameId
public sealed class HolographicFrameRenderingReport
public sealed class HolographicFrameScanoutMonitor : IClosable
public sealed class HolographicFrameScanoutReport
public sealed class HolographicSpace {
HolographicFrameScanoutMonitor CreateFrameScanoutMonitor(uint maxQueuedReports);
namespace Windows.Management.Deployment {
public sealed class AddPackageOptions
public enum DeploymentOptions : uint {
StageInPlace = (uint)4194304,
public sealed class PackageManager {
IAsyncOperationWithProgress AddPackageByUriAsync(Uri packageUri, AddPackageOptions options);
IIterable FindProvisionedPackages();
PackageStubPreference GetPackageStubPreference(string packageFamilyName);
IAsyncOperationWithProgress RegisterPackageByNameAsync(string name, RegisterPackageOptions options);
IAsyncOperationWithProgress RegisterPackageByUriAsync(Uri manifestUri, RegisterPackageOptions options);
IAsyncOperationWithProgress RegisterPackagesByFullNameAsync(IIterable packageFullNames, DeploymentOptions deploymentOptions);
void SetPackageStubPreference(string packageFamilyName, PackageStubPreference useStub);
IAsyncOperationWithProgress StagePackageByUriAsync(Uri packageUri, StagePackageOptions options);
public enum PackageStubPreference
public enum PackageTypes : uint {
All = (uint)4294967295,
public sealed class RegisterPackageOptions
public enum RemovalOptions : uint {
PreserveRoamableApplicationData = (uint)128,
public sealed class StagePackageOptions
public enum StubPackageOption
namespace Windows.Media.Audio {
public sealed class AudioPlaybackConnection : IClosable
public sealed class AudioPlaybackConnectionOpenResult
public enum AudioPlaybackConnectionOpenResultStatus
public enum AudioPlaybackConnectionState
namespace Windows.Media.Capture {
public sealed class MediaCapture : IClosable {
MediaCaptureRelativePanelWatcher CreateRelativePanelWatcher(StreamingCaptureMode captureMode, DisplayRegion displayRegion);
public sealed class MediaCaptureInitializationSettings {
Uri DeviceUri { get; set; }
PasswordCredential DeviceUriPasswordCredential { get; set; }
public sealed class MediaCaptureRelativePanelWatcher : IClosable
namespace Windows.Media.Capture.Frames {
public sealed class MediaFrameSourceInfo {
Panel GetRelativePanel(DisplayRegion displayRegion);
namespace Windows.Media.Devices {
public sealed class PanelBasedOptimizationControl
namespace Windows.Media.MediaProperties {
public static class MediaEncodingSubtypes {
public static string Pgs { get; }
public static string Srt { get; }
public static string Ssa { get; }
public static string VobSub { get; }
public sealed class TimedMetadataEncodingProperties : IMediaEncodingProperties {
public static TimedMetadataEncodingProperties CreatePgs();
public static TimedMetadataEncodingProperties CreateSrt();
public static TimedMetadataEncodingProperties CreateSsa(byte[] formatUserData);
public static TimedMetadataEncodingProperties CreateVobSub(byte[] formatUserData);
namespace Windows.Networking.BackgroundTransfer {
public sealed class DownloadOperation : IBackgroundTransferOperation, IBackgroundTransferOperationPriority {
void RemoveRequestHeader(string headerName);
void SetRequestHeader(string headerName, string headerValue);
public sealed class UploadOperation : IBackgroundTransferOperation, IBackgroundTransferOperationPriority {
void RemoveRequestHeader(string headerName);
void SetRequestHeader(string headerName, string headerValue);
namespace Windows.Networking.Connectivity {
public enum NetworkAuthenticationType {
Owe = 12,
namespace Windows.Networking.NetworkOperators {
public sealed class NetworkOperatorTetheringAccessPointConfiguration {
TetheringWiFiBand Band { get; set; }
bool IsBandSupported(TetheringWiFiBand band);
IAsyncOperation IsBandSupportedAsync(TetheringWiFiBand band);
public sealed class NetworkOperatorTetheringManager {
public static void DisableNoConnectionsTimeout();
public static IAsyncAction DisableNoConnectionsTimeoutAsync();
public static void EnableNoConnectionsTimeout();
public static IAsyncAction EnableNoConnectionsTimeoutAsync();
public static bool IsNoConnectionsTimeoutEnabled();
public enum TetheringWiFiBand
namespace Windows.Networking.PushNotifications {
public static class PushNotificationChannelManager {
public static event EventHandler ChannelsRevoked;
public sealed class PushNotificationChannelsRevokedEventArgs
public sealed class RawNotification {
IBuffer ContentBytes { get; }
namespace Windows.Security.Authentication.Web.Core {
public sealed class WebAccountMonitor {
event TypedEventHandler AccountPictureUpdated;
namespace Windows.Storage {
public static class KnownFolders {
public static IAsyncOperation GetFolderAsync(KnownFolderId folderId);
public static IAsyncOperation RequestAccessAsync(KnownFolderId folderId);
public static IAsyncOperation RequestAccessForUserAsync(User user, KnownFolderId folderId);
public enum KnownFoldersAccessStatus
public sealed class StorageFile : IInputStreamReference, IRandomAccessStreamReference, IStorageFile, IStorageFile2, IStorageFilePropertiesWithAvailability, IStorageItem, IStorageItem2, IStorageItemProperties, IStorageItemProperties2, IStorageItemPropertiesWithProvider {
public static IAsyncOperation GetFileFromPathForUserAsync(User user, string path);
public sealed class StorageFolder : IStorageFolder, IStorageFolder2, IStorageFolderQueryOperations, IStorageItem, IStorageItem2, IStorageItemProperties, IStorageItemProperties2, IStorageItemPropertiesWithProvider {
public static IAsyncOperation GetFolderFromPathForUserAsync(User user, string path);
namespace Windows.Storage.Provider {
public sealed class StorageProviderFileTypeInfo
public sealed class StorageProviderSyncRootInfo {
IVector FallbackFileTypeInfo { get; }
public static class StorageProviderSyncRootManager {
public static bool IsSupported();
namespace Windows.System {
public enum UserWatcherUpdateKind
namespace Windows.UI.Composition.Interactions {
public sealed class InteractionTracker : CompositionObject {
int TryUpdatePosition(Vector3 value, InteractionTrackerClampingOption option, InteractionTrackerPositionUpdateOption posUpdateOption);
public enum InteractionTrackerPositionUpdateOption
namespace Windows.UI.Input {
public sealed class CrossSlidingEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
public sealed class DraggingEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
public sealed class GestureRecognizer {
uint HoldMaxContactCount { get; set; }
uint HoldMinContactCount { get; set; }
float HoldRadius { get; set; }
TimeSpan HoldStartDelay { get; set; }
uint TapMaxContactCount { get; set; }
uint TapMinContactCount { get; set; }
uint TranslationMaxContactCount { get; set; }
uint TranslationMinContactCount { get; set; }
public sealed class HoldingEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
uint CurrentContactCount { get; }
public sealed class ManipulationCompletedEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
uint CurrentContactCount { get; }
public sealed class ManipulationInertiaStartingEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
public sealed class ManipulationStartedEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
public sealed class ManipulationUpdatedEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
uint CurrentContactCount { get; }
public sealed class RightTappedEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
public sealed class SystemButtonEventController : AttachableInputObject
public sealed class SystemFunctionButtonEventArgs
public sealed class SystemFunctionLockChangedEventArgs
public sealed class SystemFunctionLockIndicatorChangedEventArgs
public sealed class TappedEventArgs {
uint ContactCount { get; }
namespace Windows.UI.Input.Inking {
public sealed class InkModelerAttributes {
bool UseVelocityBasedPressure { get; set; }
namespace Windows.UI.Text {
public enum RichEditMathMode
public sealed class RichEditTextDocument : ITextDocument {
void GetMath(out string value);
void SetMath(string value);
void SetMathMode(RichEditMathMode mode);
namespace Windows.UI.ViewManagement {
public sealed class ApplicationView {
bool CriticalInputMismatch { get; set; }
bool TemporaryInputMismatch { get; set; }
void ApplyApplicationUserModelID(string value);
public sealed class UISettings {
event TypedEventHandler AnimationsEnabledChanged;
event TypedEventHandler MessageDurationChanged;
public sealed class UISettingsAnimationsEnabledChangedEventArgs
public sealed class UISettingsMessageDurationChangedEventArgs
namespace Windows.UI.ViewManagement.Core {
public sealed class CoreInputView {
event TypedEventHandler PrimaryViewHiding;
event TypedEventHandler PrimaryViewShowing;
public sealed class CoreInputViewHidingEventArgs
public enum CoreInputViewKind {
Symbols = 4,
public sealed class CoreInputViewShowingEventArgs
public sealed class UISettingsController
namespace Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls {
public class HandwritingView : Control {
UIElement HostUIElement { get; set; }
public static DependencyProperty HostUIElementProperty { get; }
CoreInputDeviceTypes InputDeviceTypes { get; set; }
bool IsSwitchToKeyboardButtonVisible { get; set; }
public static DependencyProperty IsSwitchToKeyboardButtonVisibleProperty { get; }
double MinimumColorDifference { get; set; }
public static DependencyProperty MinimumColorDifferenceProperty { get; }
bool PreventAutomaticDismissal { get; set; }
public static DependencyProperty PreventAutomaticDismissalProperty { get; }
bool ShouldInjectEnterKey { get; set; }
public static DependencyProperty ShouldInjectEnterKeyProperty { get; }
event TypedEventHandler CandidatesChanged;
event TypedEventHandler ContentSizeChanging;
void SelectCandidate(uint index);
void SetTrayDisplayMode(HandwritingViewTrayDisplayMode displayMode);
public sealed class HandwritingViewCandidatesChangedEventArgs
public sealed class HandwritingViewContentSizeChangingEventArgs
public enum HandwritingViewTrayDisplayMode
namespace Windows.UI.Xaml.Core.Direct {
public enum XamlEventIndex {
HandwritingView_ContentSizeChanging = 321,
public enum XamlPropertyIndex {
HandwritingView_HostUIElement = 2395,
HandwritingView_IsSwitchToKeyboardButtonVisible = 2393,
HandwritingView_MinimumColorDifference = 2396,
HandwritingView_PreventAutomaticDismissal = 2397,
HandwritingView_ShouldInjectEnterKey = 2398,

Equip Yourself for Battle with the Xbox Wireless Controller – Midnight Forces II Special Edition – Xbox Wire

In 2014, we introduced the fan-favorite military-inspired Forces series for the Xbox Wireless Controller. Today, we’re introducing a new take on one of the most popular designs from the series – the new Xbox Wireless Controller – Midnight Forces II Special Edition. The Xbox Wireless Controller – Midnight Forces II Special Edition features the modern blue camouflage-pattern you love plus textured grip to help you stay on target in the heat of the battle and a 3.5mm stereo headset jack to plug in for a fully immersive gaming experience. Like all Xbox Wireless Controllers, the Xbox Wireless Controller – Midnight Forces II Special Edition comes with Bluetooth technology for gaming on Windows 10 devices or Samsung Gear VR and custom button mapping through the Xbox Accessories app to customize your controller just the way you like it.

Make your camo-inspired gaming set complete with the officially licensed Midnight Forces II Special Edition Xbox Pro Charging Stand by Controller Gear. This charging stand is built with the same high-quality materials as Xbox Wireless Controllers so it’s always an exact match, while the magnetic contact system ensures a perfect fit and secure charge every time. Each Xbox Pro Charging Stand comes with a premium charging stand, battery cover, rechargeable battery and 6-foot power cord.

The Midnight Forces II Special Edition Xbox Pro Charging Stand and the Xbox Wireless Controller – Midnight Forces II Special Edition are available today at Microsoft Store in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. The controller is also available online through Wal-Mart in U.S. and Canada starting today and coming to their physical stores beginning mid-October.

Go to Original Article
Author: Microsoft News Center

Announcing Windows Server vNext Insider Preview Build 18975 | Windows Experience Blog

Hello Windows Insiders!Today we are pleased to release a new Insider preview build of the Windows Server VNext Semi-Annual Channel editions.

Windows Server vNext Semi-Annual Preview
The Server Core Edition is available in the 18 supported Server languages in ISO format and in VHDX format in English only.
Windows Server Core App Compatibility FoD Preview
Windows Server Language Packs
Windows Admin Center 1908
Symbols are available on the public symbol server – see Update on Microsoft’s Symbol Server blog post and Using the Microsoft Symbol Server. Matching Windows Server container images will be available via Docker Hub. For more information about Windows Server containers and Insider builds, click here.
The following keys allow for unlimited activations of Windows Server Semi-Annual Channel Previews
Server Standard: V6N4W-86M3X-J77X3-JF6XW-D9PRV
Server Datacenter: B69WH-PRNHK-BXVK3-P9XF7-XD84W
This Windows Server Preview will expire July 31st, 2020.

Registered Insiders may navigate directly to the Windows Server Insider Preview download page.  See the Additional Downloads dropdown for Windows Admin Center and other supplemental apps and products. If you have not yet registered as an Insider, see GETTING STARTED WITH SERVER on the Windows Insiders for Business portal.

The most important part of a frequent release cycle is to hear what’s working and what needs to be improved, so your feedback is extremely valued. For Windows Server, use your registered Windows 10 Insider device and use the Feedback Hub application. In the app, choose the Windows Server category and then the appropriate subcategory for your feedback. In the title of the Feedback, please indicate the build number you are providing feedback as shown below:
[Server #####] Title of my feedback
See Share Feedback on Windows Server via Feedback Hub for specifics. We also encourage you to visit the Windows Server Insiders space on the Microsoft Tech Communities forum to collaborate, share and learn from experts.
For Windows Admin Center, Send us feedback via UserVoice. We also encourage you to visit the Windows Admin Center space on the Microsoft Tech Communities.

There is an issue where the App Compatibility FOD cannot be added to the OS .wim image offline using DISM /image method.  After upgrade, it is necessary to reinstall the new FOD using DISM /online method.

This is pre-release software – it is provided for use “as-is” and is not supported in production environments. Users are responsible for installing any updates made available from Windows Update.   All pre-release software made available to you via the Windows Server Insider program are governed by the Insider Terms of Use.
Thanks,Dona and Brandon

For Sale – Macbook Pro 13.3″ (2017) Core i5 2.3Ghz, 512Gb HDD, 8Gb RAM

For Sale as the good lady is going back to University and her needs are slightly different.

This was purchased in January but has never been used as we never moved her over from her old machine.

It is complete with Box, obviously ‘As New’. Power supply and USB-C charge cable are brand new and unused.

Spec is:

Macbook Pro 13.3″
Space Gray
2.3Ghz Core i5
512Gb SSD

In warranty until 21st January 2020 – and still valid for AppleCare purchase should you wish.

Full specs can be found on


I’ll leave it here as an Exclusive for a few days but I have an eBay promo so will list it on there also on Sunday

IMG_1053.JPG IMG_1087.JPG IMG_1114.JPG IMG_1115.JPG IMG_1116.JPG Screenshot 2019-08-23 at 12.44.20.png

Price and currency: 1000
Delivery: Delivery cost is included within my country
Payment method: PPG Preferred BT Available
Location: Worcester, UK
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I have no preference

This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

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Teaching and learning with Minecraft—#MSFTEduChat TweetMeet and Live Event on September 17 | | Microsoft EDU

Announcing the September 17 TweetMeet and a new Live Event

Minecraft: Education Edition has found a place in many classrooms around the world, empowering students and teachers to take charge of their learning, boost their STEM and 21st-century skills to solve problems through inquiry, creativity and collaboration—in the immersive and fun world of Minecraft.

On September 17, in celebration of the new Back to School updates by Minecraft: Education Edition, we’re excited to host two Minecraft-themed events to inspire you for the new school year: a #MSFTEduChat TweetMeet immediately followed by a new Live Event.

Keep reading for detailed information about this new, dual TweetMeet event.

September 17, 10 a.m. PDT | 1 p.m. EDT | 18:00 BST: Teaching and Learning with Minecraft #MSFTEduChat TweetMeet

September 17, 10 a.m. PDT | 1 p.m. EDT | 18:00 BST: Teaching and Learning with Minecraft #MSFTEduChat TweetMeet

TweetMeet on Teaching and Learning with Minecraft starting at 10 a.m. PDT

Whether you’re a newcomer to MinecraftEdu or have been working with it for years, our TweetMeet has something for you. Hosted by 21 passionate Minecraft Global Mentors, this Twitter conversation invites you to share and learn from the best ideas, tips and resources. Our hosts will provide you with implementation checklists and exciting examples of interactive lessons and activities that keep your learners motivated while they collaborate on solving real-world problems. With all this in mind, we welcome you to a 75-minute TweetMeet on September 17 at 10 a.m. PDT.

Meenoo Rami @MeenooRami, Manager for #MinecraftEdu at Microsoft

Meenoo Rami @MeenooRami, Manager for #MinecraftEdu at Microsoft

Live Event with Meenoo Rami from the MinecraftEdu Team at 11:15 a.m. PDT

Just a few weeks ago, Minecraft: Education Edition released the Back to School update for all users, which include Immersive Reader integration, an improved multiplayer experience with join codes, single sign-on (SSO) support and more.

Video for Teaching and learning with Minecraft—#MSFTEduChat TweetMeet and Live Event on September 17

Earlier this summer, the Minecraft team released an interactive science curriculum on biodiversity developed in partnership with World Wildlife Fund and Naturebytes.

Video for Teaching and learning with Minecraft—#MSFTEduChat TweetMeet and Live Event on September 17

That’s why we’re excited that Meenoo Rami from the Minecraft team will be demonstrating the highlights from these major announcements immediately after the TweetMeet, at 11:15 a.m. PDT.

Mark the Live Event in your calendar, join the Live Eventno registration required—and make sure to check out the MinecraftEdu Blog for many more posts detailing these significant updates.

Welcoming newcomers

Our brand-new “You can join a #MSFTEduChat TweetMeet” video was created especially for newcomers, so please share it with friends and colleagues who might be interested in joining:

Video for Teaching and learning with Minecraft—#MSFTEduChat TweetMeet and Live Event on September 17

Know someone who is totally new to Twitter and could use an introduction? Point them to the Twitter EDU tutorial ebook by David Truss @datruss.

10 Language tracks

We’re offering 10 simultaneous language tracks this month: English, Arabic, Dutch, Finnish (new!), French, German, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish.

For each language track, we have one or more hosts to post the translated questions and respond to educators.

The #TweetMeetXX hashtags for non-English languages are to be used together with #MSFTEduChat so that everyone can find the conversations back in their own language.

For example: German-speaking people should use both #TweetMeetDE and #MSFTEduChat. English-speaking educators may use #MSFTEduChat on its own.

TweetMeet Fan? Show it off on your Twitter profile!

Show your passion for this month’s Minecraft-themed TweetMeet by uploading this month’s #MSFTEduChat Twitter Header Photo as a banner on your own Twitter profile.

Twitter Header Photos are available in many languages and time zones.

September 17, 10 a.m. PDT | 1 p.m. EDT | 18:00 BST: Teaching and Learning with Minecraft #MSFTEduChat TweetMeet

September 17, 10 a.m. PDT | 1 p.m. EDT | 18:00 BST: Teaching and Learning with Minecraft #MSFTEduChat TweetMeet

Create your own TweetMeet Friend Card

Another way to share your enthusiasm for MinecraftEdu and the TweetMeets in general is to create a TweetMeet Friend Card. Share your own version of this image anytime, anywhere. It will come in handy when introducing yourself at the start of a TweetMeet. Just follow the steps in the TweetMeet Friend Cards PowerPoint.

Here’s an example:

TweetMeet Friend Card example

TweetMeet Friend Card example

Looking back on the August TweetMeet on Back to School

We captured highlights from the Back to School TweetMeet in this @MicrosoftEDU Twitter Moment. There’s even a comprehensive collection of 2,180 tweets in this Wakelet Collection.

Why join the #MSFTEduChat TweetMeets?

TweetMeets are monthly recurring Twitter conversations about themes relevant to educators, facilitated by Microsoft Education. The purpose of these events is to help professionals in education learn from each other and inspire their students while they are preparing for their future. The TweetMeets also nurture personal-learning networks among educators from across the globe.

Check out this helpful blog post by former host James Kieft that describes why educators should consider participating in Twitter chats and how to get started.

When and how can I join?

Join us Tuesday, September 17 from 10:00 a.m. to 11:15 a.m. PDT on Twitter using the hashtags  #MinecraftEdu, #MSFTEduChat and#MicrosoftEDU (which you can always use to stay in touch with us). Be sure to double-check your own local event time. You can find the event time for 215 countries with this time zone announcer.

Our next recommendation for you is to set up a Twitter dashboard TweetDeck and add columns for the hashtag #MSFTEduChat, #MinecraftEdu and #MicrosoftEDU. If you are new to TweetDeck, then check out this brief TweetDeck tutorial by Marjolein Hoekstra.

When a tweet appears that you want to respond to, press the retweet button and type your comments.

Additional tips are offered in this animated GIF that you’re most welcome to share with newcomers:

#MSFTEduChat TweetMeet Tips! | 1) Quote-Retweet the question with your answer, 2) Start retweet with A1, A2 .. A5, 3) Use hashtag #MSFTEduChat in all your tweets, 4) Monitor tweets in TweetDeck

#MSFTEduChat TweetMeet Tips! | 1) Quote-Retweet the question with your answer, 2) Start retweet with A1, A2 .. A5, 3) Use hashtag #MSFTEduChat in all your tweets, 4) Monitor tweets in TweetDeck

Too busy to join at event time? No problem!

From our monthly surveys we know that you may be in class at event time, busy doing other things or may even be asleep—well, no problem! All educators are welcome to join any time after the event. Simply look at the questions below and respond to these at a day and time that suit you best.

You can also schedule your tweets in advance. In such cases, be sure to include the entire question in your tweet and include the hashtag #MSFTEduChat so that everyone knows to which question in which conversation you are responding.

To better allow everyone to prepare for the event, from now on we’re providing the question timings in a text table:

PDT # September 17–TweetMeet question timings
10:00am Welcome Please introduce yourself. Use hashtag #MSFTEduChat.
10:04 1 Why Minecraft in education?
10:18 2 What helps teachers get started with #MinecraftEdu?
10:32 3 How does Minecraft transform education? Share stories.
10:46 4 What practical Minecraft tips, resources and lessons do you recommend?
11:00 5 What’s the next step in your #MinecraftEdu adventure?
11:15 Live Event Join our Live Event with Meenoo Rami from the MinecraftEdu team.

SuperWakelet: resources curated by this month’s hosts

Wakelet is a useful web service to bookmark, curate and annotate resources, images, tweets and other content. A brand-new addition is the possibility to include a Flipgrid Shorts video in a Wakelet.

Through our new SuperWakelet, each of our hosts uses Flipgrid to introduce and share their personal favorite resources on Minecraft in Education:

Teaching and Learning with Minecraft SuperWakelet, live-embedded:


Meet the 21 hosts for this month’s TweetMeet! After going through weeks of preparation for this TweetMeet, they are thrilled to engage with you on their favorite topic: Teaching and Learning with Minecraft.

Check out all the hosts, see what they are tweeting about and consider following them:

List of hosts and their profiles

  • Anis Amouri @Anis_amouri (Fine arts teacher, MIE Expert and MIE Master Trainer, Master Skype Teacher, Minecraft Global Mentor, SDG Ambassador, EU Code Week Ambassdor, HundrED Ambassador, CoSpaces Ambassador—Sfax, Tunisia)
  • Becky Keene @BeckyKeene (Director, Content and Professional Learning, insight2execution; Director of Amazing Things, Phygital Labs; Minecraft Global Mentor, MIE Expert and Master Trainer, Flipgrid Student Voice Ambassador, OneNote Junkie—Seattle WA, USA)
  • Bryan Sanders @nayrbgo (Doctor of Education, Educational Technology Researcher, Academic Technology Specialist, High School English Teacher, Minecraft Global Mentor—Los Angeles CA, USA)
  • Carlos Solano @Carlos_Rsolano (Teacher and NTI coordinator, passionate of learning gaming, using Minecraft in daily classes and also to promote social inclusion of both gifted and autistic childs, Minecraft Global Mentor, MIE Expert—Madrid, Spain)
  • Cheryn Ridge @cherynbaier (MIE Expert and Master Trainer, Minecraft Global Mentor, Teacher, EdTech Teacher Support at Computers 4 Kids—Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Elena Vladescu @VladescuElena (Physics teacher, Minecraft Global Mentor, MIE Expert, eTwinning and Scientix Ambassador—Slatina, Romania)
  • Erik Post @ErikPost9 (Geography and Technology teacher, Minecraft Global Mentor, MIE Expert, MIE Master Trainer—Hardenberg, The Netherlands)
  • Francisco Tupy @FranciscoTupy (Minecraft PhD (literally). Game designer, speaker and consultant on education and innovation projects worldwide—São Paulo, Brazil)
  • Jeff Gearhart @TechJeff09 (Technology Director at Brinnon School, NCCE Professional Learning Specialist, MIE Trainer, Surface Pro Expert, MIE Expert, Minecraft Global Mentor—Brinnon WA, USA)
  • Kristoffer Thomsen @kristoffer_th (Solution Specialist on Education at Microsoft, Former Minecraft Global Mentor. Technology and Education excites me—Oslo, Norway)
  • Mary Elizabeth Pearson @pearsonmep (Educator, NCCE Professional Learning Specialist, Madison International School Technology Consultant and Minecraft in Education academy coordinator, MIE Expert and Master Trainer, Minecraft Global Mentor—Merida, Mexico)
  • Merry Willis @merrywillis (Instructional Technology Specialist, Cherokee County, GA School District, Minecraft Global Mentor, MIE Expert, MIE Fellow and Master Trainer, Fulbright DAT Alumni—Woodstock GA, USA)
  • Michael Flashhacker @MiFleischhacker (Secondary teacher at NMS Kinzerplatz, Minecraft Global Mentor, flipping the classroom, passionate about game-based and lifelong learning—Vienna, Austria)
  • Mike Washburn @misterwashburn (Head of Curriculum and Training at Logics Academy, Host of OnEducation Podcast, Minecraft Global Mentor; MIE Expert—Barrie ON, Canada)
  • Nelly Hamed @nelly_hamed (MIEE fellow, Minecraft Mentor, MergeCube Ambassador, Cospaces Ambassador, Microsoft Trainer, ScreenBeam Expert, Work in Hayah International Academy, Associate at Immersive Minds UK, Hayah International Academy—Cairo, Egypt)
  • Noreen Dooley @nodooley (Classroom Technology Designer, NCCE Professional Learning Specialist, MIE Expert and Master Trainer, Minecraft Global Mentor, passionate about preparing students for success in the real world—Katy TX, USA)
  • Paola Lopez @pacsita (EdTech entrepreneur enthusiast, passionate about neurodiversity and Google Certified Innovator #MEX18 & Microsoft Innovative Educator Expert, Flipgrid Ambassador and Minecraft Global Mentor—Monterrey, Mexico)
  • Pekka Ouli @pekkaouli (eLearning Specialist and Minecraft Global Mentor who loves international Minecraft projects and collaboration—Äänekoski, Finland)
  • Stéphane Cloâtre @StephaneCloatre (Technology Teacher, Robotics educator, Minecraft Global Mentor, Digital Education Consultant at Immersive Minds, passionate about making learning fun AND meaningful—Fougères, France)
  • Tina Coffey @elemitrt (Instructional Technology Teacher, Minecraft Global Mentor, passionate about finding ways to engage students, make learning relevant, promote global literacy, and foster 21st Century skills—Roanoke VA, USA)
  • Trish Cloud @trishcloud (Coordinator, Personalized Digital Learning, Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools, Minecraft Global Mentor, using Minecraft: EE to integrate CS into elementary and middle schools throughout CMS—Huntersville NC, USA)

Next month’s event: STEM and NASA

October 15 Tuesday at 10 am PDT | 1 pm EDT STEM and NASA #MSFTEduChat

October 15 Tuesday at 10 am PDT | 1 pm EDT STEM and NASA #MSFTEduChat

The theme of the TweetMeet on October 15 will be STEM and NASA. We’re looking forward to this event and hope you’ll spread the word!

Got questions about the #MSFTEduChat TweetMeets?

Please connect with TweetMeet organizer Marjolein Hoekstra @TweetMeet on Twitter if you have any questions about the TweetMeets or how to become a host at a future event.

Click here for free STEM resourcesExplore tools for student-centered learning

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Author: Microsoft News Center

Oracle cloud ambitions follow decades of transition

Oracle’s roots as an on-premises software company have made for a complicated and at times contradictory relationship with cloud computing over the last decade, and some say the company can’t afford to lose any more ground.

After all, in 2008, the software giant’s outspoken founder Larry Ellison mocked the very notion of the phrase, saying cloud amounted to a rebranding of existing technologies. Two years later, Ellison launched Exalogic, an application server appliance he dubbed “one big, honkin’ cloud.”

Oracle cloud beginnings and missteps

Prominent examples abound of Oracle’s efforts to lead the way in the Internet era, such as Ellison’s network computer offering from the mid- to late 1990s. It failed at the time, but foreshadowed the rise of products such as Chromebooks — stripped-down thin client computing devices that rely heavily on connections to the web.

More recently, Oracle — like IBM, Cisco and HPE — found itself outgunned in the cloud computing platform race by AWS and Microsoft. Oracle offers IaaS to customers, but has positioned it for more specialized tasks.

Last year, Ellison’s longtime head of product development, Thomas Kurian, decamped and turned up as CEO of Google Cloud. Published reports have it that Kurian left in part because Ellison was too reluctant to embrace partnerships with other cloud providers. That changed in June, when Oracle and Microsoft created a cloud interoperability pact.

Oracle struck a partnership deal with Microsoft to improve its footing in the cloud computing market.
Microsoft and Oracle struck a win-win deal to boost each company’s cloud clout.

Ellison has named no replacement for Kurian, and in fact has taken over the job at age 75. While Oracle seems to have settled on a long-term strategy for IaaS, and has had great success selling SaaS applications, Oracle’s challenge centers on PaaS — most specifically Oracle 19c, the latest version of its flagship database product.

The task at hand is to keep Oracle’s customer base wherever they want to be, whether on premises or on Oracle cloud, and to be competitive on price, as IT pros have more database options than ever before — particularly in open source.

Overall, Ellison’s tone and message to the OpenWorld conference attendees later this month will be critical.

“His last act had better be figuring the cloud out,” said John Rymer, an analyst at Forrester Research. “Cloud is that kind of moment for Oracle. If they don’t get this right, they don’t get to continue to play, and they become legacy.”

If they don’t get [cloud] right, they don’t get to continue to play, and they become legacy.
John RymerAnalyst, Forrester

Ellison, as always, is sure to use the company’s annual conference to sling arrows at competitors in an effort to boost Oracle in the cloud. The conference agenda shows that Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI), Oracle’s next-generation IaaS, will play a prominent role through sessions, customer presentations and in a keynote showcasing new features.

But the star should be the Oracle database, with more than 200 OpenWorld sessions associated with it. Expect Ellison to have plenty to say about it on his own.

 In part two of this story, we look back at events of the past 20 years that brought Oracle to its present position in the cloud computing market.

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DerbyCon session tackles cyber attribution, false flag attacks

LOUSIVILLE, KY — A nearly hour-long talk at DerbyCon merely “scratched the surface” of various indicators that need to be studied in order to perform accurate cyber attribution after an attack.

The conceit of the talk by Jake Williams, founder and president of Rendition Infosec in Augusta, Ga., was to demonstrate how threat actors can manipulate indicators used in cyber attribution, and how much work must be done to properly attribute an attack. He told us afterward that it’s valuable for red teams to “get a chance to exercise detections for specific attacker tools,” but admitted “the bigger point of the talk was to not jump to attribution conclusions based on a single indicator.”

Williams ran through cyber attribution mistakes of the past, including attacks by the Cyber Caliphate being attributed to ISIS or the Olympic Destroyer malware being attributed to North Korea when deeper investigations found Russia to be the more likely threat actor in both cases.

With the Olympic Destroyer malware, Williams said confirmation bias took over because it was a cyberattack in South Korea and information in the portable executable (PE) header “tied it back to other North Korean malware.”

Williams said, “Roll forward though and researchers noticed as you dive deeper than the header there are some coding similarities to Russian malware. Nothing conclusive, but the problem here is that [Russia] sucks at tradecraft. Researchers noticed that the malware had been uploaded two weeks before to a scanning service in Eastern Europe … to make sure it wasn’t going to get caught by antivirus.”

Williams said the Olympic Destroyer malware had been uploaded under the name “olymp.exe” and the PE header — more specifically the rich header — “100% aligned with Russian malware.”

Beyond manipulating header information, Williams described other ways investigators could be misled in cyber attribution and noted that all of the tactics are already known by attackers.

“I have no doubt that after we talk about this, we’ll see more of this in the wild. But, the fact that we see more in the wild that more is happening in the wild, let’s be very clear about that,” Williams said. “What it means is we’re seeing more of it and, in many cases, that’s because our eyes are open to it.”

Williams said using IP addresses can be tricky with cyber attribution, because, on one hand, even nation state threat actors have been known to run attacks from their home country. But on the other, it is very easy to rent virtual private server space from other countries to mask an attack’s true origin and attackers have been known to use the same infrastructure or tools intentionally and unintentionally.

Other ways threat actors can mislead cyber attribution investigations is by creating false infrastructure via multiple online “supporter personas” that are used to “prop up” a specific group or “lookalike” email accounts.

Williams said because investigators want to find connections, they can be fooled by false personas, tracking the general times attackers are active to determine the original time zone, focusing on a specific type of event log, and much more.

Additionally, he warned that using encryption keys recovered from PowerShell or from compiled malware for attribution depends on if the keys are symmetric or asymmetric.

“Symmetric keys are trivial to reuse because the same key encrypts and decrypts. So, I can use a key the attacker has used previously, so you want to be very careful there,” Williams added. “With asymmetric, you only have one side of the key pair. When we evaluate evidence for attribution, we value symmetric keys far more highly if it hasn’t been published in a [cyber threat intelligence, or CTI] report because are the attackers really going to fake it? How well-known is it? But on the false flag side, I do want that published in the CTI report. I want it to be obvious for the investigator to make the connection.”

Given all of the evidence and ways to attempt to determine cyber attribution, Williams noted that as an attacker, “You can do a few things well, but doing everything well is pretty impossible.”

Williams told the DerbyCon crowd, “If you’re doing good wholesome forensics, you’re likely to uncover the false flag. If you’re relying on one or two indicators in isolation, this is where you’re likely to trip up. We’re hard-wired for cognitive biases and logical fallacies. We’re hard-wired to like a good conspiracy.”

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