Tag Archives: appeal

New AWS cost management tool, instance tactics to cut cloud bills

LAS VEGAS — Amazon continuously rolls out new discounting programs and AWS cost management tools in an appeal to customers’ bottom lines and as a hedge against mounting competition from Microsoft and Google.

Companies have grappled with nasty surprises on their AWS bills for years, with the reasons attributed to AWS’ sheer complexity, as well as the runaway effect on-demand computing can engender without strong governance. It’s a thorny problem with a solution that can come in multiple forms.

To that end, the cloud giant released a number of new AWS cost management tools at re:Invent, including Compute Optimizer, which uses machine learning to help customers right-size their EC2 instances.

At the massive re:Invent conference here this week, AWS customers discussed how they use both AWS-native tools and their own methods to get the most value from their cloud budgets.

Ride-sharing service Lyft has committed to spend at least $300 million on AWS cloud services between the beginning of this year and the end of 2021.

Lyft, like rival Uber, saw a hockey stick-like growth spurt in recent years, going from about 50 million rides in 2015 to more than 350 million a few years later. But its AWS cost management needed serious work, said Patrick Valenzuela, engineering manager.

An initial effort to wrangle AWS costs resulted in a spreadsheet, powered by a Python script, that divided AWS spending by the number of rides given to reach an average figure. The spreadsheet also helped Lyft rank engineering teams according to their rate of AWS spending, which had a gamification effect as teams competed to do better, Valenzuela said in a presentation.

Within six months, Lyft managed to drop the AWS cost-per-ride figure by 40%. But it needed more, such as fine-grained data sets that could be probed via SQL queries. Other factors, such as discounts and the cost of AWS Reserved Instances, weren’t always reflected transparently in the AWS-provided cost usage reports used to build the spreadsheet.

Lyft subsequently built a second-generation tool that included a data pipeline fed into a data warehouse. It created a reporting and dashboard layer on top of that foundation. The results have been promising. Earlier this year, Lyft found it was now spending 50% less on read/writes for its top 25 DynamoDB tables and also saved 50% on spend related to Kubernetes container migrations.

 “If you want to learn more about AWS, I recommend digging into your bill,” Valenzuela said.

AWS cost management a perennial issue

While there are plenty of cloud cost management tools available in addition to the new AWS Compute Optimizer, some AWS customers take a proactive approach to cost savings, compared to using historical analysis to spot and shed waste, as Lyft did in the example presented at re:Invent.

Privately held mapping data provider Here Technologies serves 100 million motor vehicles and collects 28 TB of data each day. Companies have a choice in the cloud procurement process — one being to force teams through rigid sourcing activities, said Jason Fuller, head of cloud management and operations at Here.

“Or, you let the builders build,” he said during a re:Invent presentation. “We let the builders build.”

Still, Here had developed a complex landscape on AWS, with more than 500 accounts that collectively spun up more than 10 million EC2 instances a year. A few years ago, Here began a concerted effort to adopt AWS Reserved Instances in a programmatic manner, hoping to squeeze out waste.

Reserved Instances carry contract terms of up to three years and offer substantial savings over on-demand pricing. Here eventually moved nearly 80% of its EC2 usage into Reserved Instances, which gave it about 50% off the on-demand rate, Fuller said.

The results have been impressive. During the past three-and-a-half years, Here saved $50 million and avoided another $150 million in costs, Fuller said.

Salesforce is another heavy user of AWS. It signed a $400 million infrastructure deal with AWS in 2016 and the companies have since partnered on other areas. Based on its 2017 acquisition of Krux, Salesforce now offers Audience Studio, a data management platform that collects and analyzes vast amounts of audience information from various third-party sources. It’s aimed at marketers who want to run more effective digital advertising campaigns.

Audience Studio handles 200,000 user queries per second, supported by 2,500 Elastic MapReduce Clusters on AWS, said Alex Estrovitz, director of software engineering at Salesforce.

“That’s a lot of compute, and I don’t think we’d be doing it cost-effectively without using [AWS Spot Instances],” Estrovitz said in a re:Invent session. More than 85% of Audience Studio’s infrastructure uses Spot Instances, which are made up of idle compute resources on AWS and cost up to 90% less than on-demand pricing.

But Spot Instances are best suited for jobs like Audience Studio’s, where large amounts of data get parallel-processed in batches across large pools of instances. Spot Instances are ephemeral; AWS can shut them down upon a brief notice when the system needs resources for other customer jobs. However, customers like Salesforce can buy Spot Instances based on their application’s degree of tolerance for interruptions.

Salesforce has achieved 48% savings overall since migrating Audience Studio to Spot Instances, Estrovitz said. “If you multiply this over 2,500 jobs every day, we’ve saved an immense amount of money.”

Go to Original Article
Author:

Employee activism, from composting to protests, is an HR issue

Similar to many software companies, CyberArk Software Ltd. has policies and and practices that appeal to people with skills in high demand. They include a social responsibility policy and catered lunches. The information security software firm also has something else that appeals to younger employees — an employee activism effort that brought about some real change.

Lex Register, an associate in corporate development and strategy at CyberArk, was hired in 2018. Soon after, he saw gaps in the firm’s environmental sustainability practices. The firm wasn’t, for instance, collecting food scraps for composting.

“If you’ve never composted before, the idea of leaving left out food in your office can be sort of a sticky subject,” Register said, who has a strong interest in environmental issues.

Register approached his managers at CyberArk’s U.S. headquarters in Newton, Mass., about improving its environmental sustainability. He had some specific ideas and wanted to put together an employee team to work on it. Management gave it approval and a budget.

Register helped organize a “green team,” which now makes up about 25% of its Newton office staff of 200. The firm’s global workforce is about 1,200.

CyberArk’s green team has four subgroups: transportation, energy, community and “green” habits in the office. It also has a management steering committee. Collectively, these efforts undertake a variety of actions such as volunteering on projects in the community, improving enviornmental practices in the office and working on bigger issues, such as installing electric vehicle charging stations for the office building.

When I think about the companies I want to work for, I really want to have pride in everything they do.
Lex RegisterAssociate in corporate development and strategy, CyberArk Software

“When I think about the companies I want to work for, I really want to have pride in everything they do,” Register said. 

Junior employees lead the effort

The green team subgroups are headed by junior employees, according to Register, who is 28.

“It’s a way for a lot of our junior employees who don’t necessarily have responsibility for managing people to sort of step up,” Register said. They “can run some of their own projects and show some leadership capabilities.”

Employee activism has become an increasingly public issue in the last 12 months. In May, for instance, thousands of Amazon employees signed a letter pressing the firm for action. In September, thousands walked out as part of the Global Climate Strike.

“This walkout is either a result of employees not feeling heard,” said Henry Albrecht, CEO at Limeade Inc., or employees feeling heard but fundamentally disagreeing with their leaders. Limeade makes employee experience systems. “The first problem has a simple fix: listen to employees, regularly, intentionally and with empathy,” he said. 

Some companies, such as Ford Motor Co., are using HR tools to listen to their employees and get more frequent feedback. In an interview with SearchHRSoftware, a Ford HR official said recently this kind of feedback encouraged the firm to join California in seeking emission standards that are stricter than those sought by President Trump’s administration.   

But employee activism that leads to public protest doesn’t tell the full employee activism story.

Interest in green teams rising

The Green Business Bureau provides education, assessment tools and processes that firms can use to measure their sustainability practices. In the past nine months, Bill Zujewski, CMO at the bureau, said it’s been hearing more about the formation of sustainability committees at firms. The employees leading the efforts are “almost always someone who’s a few years out of school,” he said.

HR managers, responding to “employee-driven” green initiatives, are often the ones Zujewski hears from.

Maggie Okponobi, funding coordination manager at School Specialty Inc, is one of the Green Business Bureau’s clients. Her employer is an educational services and products firm based in Greenville, Wisc. Her job is to help schools secure federal and state grants.

Okponobi is in an MBA program that has an emphasis on sustainability. As a final project, she proposed bringing a green certification to her company. The assessments evaluate a firm’s sustainability activities against best environmental practices.

Okponobi explained what she wanted to do to one of the executives. She got support and began her research, starting with an investigation of certification programs. She decided on Green Business Bureau assessments, as did CyberArk.

Company managers at School Speciality had been taking ad-hoc steps all along to improve sustainability. Efforts included installing LED lighting, and reducing paper useage by using both sides for printing and recycling, Okponobi said.

Okponobi collected data about the environmental practices for certification. The firm discovered it was eligible for gold level certification, one step below the highest level, platinum. 

The results were brought to an executive group, which included members from HR as well as marketing. Executives saw value in the ranking, and Okponobi believes it will help with recruiting efforts, especially with younger candidates. The company plans to create a green team to coordinate the sustainability efforts.

HR benefits from sustainability

Sustainability may help with retention, especially with younger workers, Okponobi said. “It gives them something exciting, positive to do in their workplace, and a goal to work toward,” she said.

Some employees are coming to workplaces with training on sustainability issues. One group that provides that kind of training is Manomet Inc., a 50-year-old science-based non-profit in Plymouth, Mass.

“We can’t make the progress that we need on climate change and other issues without the for-profit sector,” said Lora Babb, program manager of sustainable economies at Manomet.

Lora BabbLora Babb

The nonprofit takes about 20 undergrad college students each year, usually enrolled in majors that often have a sustainability component, and gives them “real world skills” to meet with businesses and conduct assessments. The training enables future employees to “make changes from the inside,” and understand practical, applied sustainability, Babb said.

This is not strictly an environmental assessment. The students also ask businesses about economic and social issues, including a workforce assessment that considers employee benefits, engagement and talent development, Babb said. 

A business with a strong environmental mission is “going to be far less effective at carrying out that mission if you are having constant workforce challenges,” Babb said.

And the results of such efforts can have an effect on culture. CyberArk’s employees have embraced composting, Register said. The company hired a firm that picks up food scraps about twice a week, processes them and makes compost — what master gardeners often refer to as black gold — available for employees to use in their home gardens. 

The results make employee composting efforts “very tangible for them,” Register said. 

Go to Original Article
Author:

New HashiCorp Terraform pricing aims for midsize firms, teams

HashiCorp Terraform offers a new midrange pricing tier that may appeal to teams within enterprises who want to use the infrastructure-as-code tool, but don’t want to wait for a capital commitment to Terraform Enterprise.

HashiCorp Terraform Cloud, a hosted version of the open source-based infrastructure-as-code software, came out as a free offering in 2018, which offered cloud-based state storage for Terraform users outside the Terraform Enterprise subscription user base. This week, HashiCorp added features to the free version, and rolled out a paid version, Terraform Cloud for Teams, that bridges the gap between the Terraform Cloud free tier and Terraform Enterprise.

“How do you collaborate with your peers if you’re not in a regulated corporate setting, if Terraform Enterprise is too big?” said Armon Dadgar, co-founder and CTO of HashiCorp, in a keynote presentation at HashiConf this week.

Additions to the Terraform Cloud free tier will flesh out Terraform for this mid-tier scenario, Dadgar said. In addition to state storage, Terraform Cloud free tier will now support remote plan and apply operations for Terraform infrastructure-as-code templates, as well as team-based workflows and collaboration and a private module registry for internal distribution among teams.

For Terraform teams that do want enterprise governance features, Terraform Cloud for Teams comes with role-based access control for private module registries and support for unlimited collaborators in a version priced at $20 per user per month. For $70 per user per month, Terraform Cloud for Teams also includes Sentinel policy as code and advanced policy and permissions features that can be customized among multiple regions and time zones, and enforced as mandatory or suggestions. The $70 per month version also includes a new cloud infrastructure cost estimation feature that alerts users about the projected costs of infrastructure they are about to provision with Terraform.

There will be overlap in the Terraform Cloud for Teams audience between midsize companies that will never need Terraform Enterprise, industry watchers say, and very large companies where IT teams don’t want to go through the politics of instituting a Terraform Enterprise license agreement.

How do you collaborate with your peers if you’re not in a regulated corporate setting, if Terraform Enterprise is too big?
Armon Dadgar Co-founder and CTO, HashiCorp

“Most big customers face a similar internal dynamic where it’s more and more difficult to get capital budget for IT projects, and top-down license agreements take a very long time,” said John Mitchell, formerly chief platform architect at SAP Ariba, a HashiCorp Enterprise shop, and now an independent digital transformation consultant who contracts with HashiCorp, among others. “Terraform Cloud for Teams offers an Opex-based consumption model, with fewer training issues, that gives enterprise teams an ‘end around’ to be able to use the tool from a political and budgeting standpoint.”

HashiCorp can also use these team-based footholds to upsell the wider enterprise on a Terraform Enterprise license agreement where appropriate, Mitchell said.

Terraform Cloud’s features in both the free tier and paid Teams versions also expanded to include workflow integrations with third-party IT management and DevOps platforms, from GitHub to ServiceNow and Slack, Dadgar said. Those tools could trigger Terraform build and deploy jobs in the past, but Terraform teams can now collaborate within those platforms as well. Terraform Cloud webhooks also let users back Terraform in to a broader IT automation ecosystem, including custom applications.

Terraform’s future: Remain ‘Switzerland’ or join a platform?

It’s no coincidence that HashiCorp seems to broaden Terraform’s reach into third-party workflow platforms, as many large enterprise IT vendors race to offer soup-to-nuts DevOps and infrastructure automation platforms for their respective customers. It’s also no secret that HashiCorp might make a juicy acquisition target for such a platform player. However, such speculation has been ongoing for at least a year, without any such acquisition in place, and industry experts are divided on whether HashiCorp will join up with a platform vendor or retain its platform independence while partnering with larger companies.

For HashiCorp loyalists such as Mitchell, HashiCorp’s lack of affiliation with any one infrastructure or software platform provider is key to its appeal.

“The reality is that HashiCorp’s founders have been around long enough to see what happens to most acquisitions done by [large IT vendors],” he said. “Even if the IP technically survives, it’s still part of that bigger machine and economic model. HashiCorp will be more successful long-term than as part of an incumbent, legacy bureaucracy.”

At the same time, HashiCorp faces some of the same business model problems as other independent open core software businesses, as major cloud providers threaten to usurp their value. So far, HashiCorp has taken a slightly different tack than players such as Elastic Inc. and Redis that saw open source software lifted by cloud providers such as Amazon — HashiCorp offers its own managed services with Terraform Cloud, and where a third-party provider offers them, such as Microsoft Azure’s HashiCorp Consul Service, HashiCorp’s site reliability engineers retain control over back-end management.

“That has to be part of their strategy if they’re going to remain independent, figuring out how to block or sidestep the obvious invasion by cloud providers,” Mitchell said.

Other industry watchers don’t count HashiCorp out as an acquisition target just yet.

“Terraform has the advantage of being able to deploy applications, while others have to find a way to plug in with CI/CD tools,” said Tom Petrocelli, analyst at Amalgam Insights in Arlington, Mass. “But in a world where platforms matter, at some point they have to pull what they have together as part of a platform to compete with the likes of Ansible.”

Go to Original Article
Author:

Veeam Availability Suite 9.5 targets complete management

Seeking to broaden its appeal to enterprises, Veeam Software improved management of virtual, physical and cloud data in the latest version of its flagship data protection product.

Veeam Availability Suite 9.5 Update 3 includes a central console to manage backup and recovery across virtual, physical and cloud workloads, said Peter McKay, CEO and president at Veeam, based in Baar, Switzerland.

“That’s a key piece to the enterprise puzzle,” McKay said of Veeam’s expanded support.

Veeam also added support for Microsoft Windows and Linux servers, VMware Cloud on Amazon Web Services (AWS) and snapshot integration for IBM and Lenovo storage, as well as improved analytics and monitoring. With this release, Veeam added its Universal Storage API, an interface to help support additional integrations.

Veeam Availability Suite 9.5 now includes built-in management for Veeam Agent for Microsoft Windows 2.1 and Veeam Agent for Linux v2. Single management of multiple agents alongside virtual machines simplifies the backup of physical systems and cloud workloads.

‘Physical will be here’

Veeam Agent for Microsoft Windows 2.1 includes protection for mission-critical Microsoft Windows Server failover clusters. Veeam Agent for Linux v2 adds backup to a Veeam Cloud Connect repository, support for scale-out backup repositories as backup targets and source-side encryption.

Improving management of physical protection may seem like it’s targeting a dying breed, especially for a vendor that launched in 2006 dedicated to protecting virtual machines. But McKay said physical devices are not going away completely anytime soon, particularly among Veeam’s enterprise customers.

“Physical will be here,” McKay said. “We need to treat physical as we treat virtual and the cloud.”

And with that strategy, Veeam can “go after pretty much every enterprise customer in the market,” he said.

Veeam in November made another physical push directed at enterprises. Through an OEM deal with Cristie Software, the Veeam Availability Platform added support for IBM AIX and Oracle Solaris, which provides protection of physical workloads in Unix environments.

Veeam continues to ask itself where it can innovate or expand for a fully comprehensive platform, said Jason Buffington, principal analyst at Enterprise Strategy Group in Milford, Mass. Support for agents running on high-availability systems is a mature perspective, he said.

Veeam's Availability Suite 9.5
Veeam Availability Suite 9.5 Update 3 offers centralized agent deployment and management to reduce complexity and improve usability.

Onward and upward with the cloud and more

The support for VMware Cloud on AWS allows enterprises to deploy Veeam across VMware-based public, private and hybrid cloud environments.

We need to be the best in the world in cloud backup and recovery.
Peter McKayCEO and president, Veeam

“We need to be the best in the world in cloud backup and recovery,” McKay said.

The vendor claims 16,700 Veeam Cloud and Service Providers.

The update includes IBM Spectrum Virtualize integration, which extends Veeam’s storage snapshot capabilities to IBM Storwize and SAN Volume Controller-based storage arrays. In addition, Veeam Availability Suite 9.5 now offers storage snapshot integration for the Lenovo Storage V Series.

Veeam also added agent monitoring and reporting and Data Sovereignty Compliance Reporting to its Veeam ONE management component. The new features are designed to help customers meet protection compliance requirements.

What to expect from Veeam

Veeam has made a change in its game plan for launching updates. Instead of a yearly basis, the company is shifting to a schedule of releasing a new batch of features every four to six months, McKay said.

“From the customer side, this is better because you get updates far faster,” he said.

To help support the frequent updates, Veeam plans to add more than 200 employees in research and development by the third quarter of 2018, McKay said.

Customers should expect at least one more update to Veeam Availability Suite 9.5. The concept of version 10 of the product, previewed at the VeeamON user conference in May, is not what it once was, McKay said. Some features previously destined for version 10 are already out, and the vendor is content with continuing to update Veeam Availability Suite 9.5.

As Veeam keeps targeting the enterprise, Buffington said the vendor will need to show it is constantly innovating.

“They continue to work on scaling up and scaling out,” Buffington said. “Veeam has really been growing up in the last two years.”

To improve its high availability, Buffington said Veeam will have to add even more automation and orchestration, lessening the dependency on people pushing a button.

Veeam claims more than 267,000 customers. In October, the vendor reported 84% year-over-year growth in new enterprise bookings for the third quarter. Recently formed alliances with major vendors — including Hewlett Packard Enterprise and Cisco — are helping to increase Veeam enterprise revenue.

Why your KPI methodology should use ‘right brain’ words

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — Despite the appeal of trendy technologies like artificial intelligence, one consultant is encouraging CIOs to go back to business intelligence basics and rethink their key performance indicator methodology.

Mico Yuk, CEO and co-founder of the consultancy BI Brainz Group in Atlanta, said companies are still struggling to make key performance indicators actionable — and not for lack of trying. It turns out the real stumbling block isn’t data, it’s language.

“KPIs are a challenge because of people, not because of measurements. A lot of problems that exist with KPIs are in the way that people interpret them,” she said in an interview at the recent Real Business Intelligence Conference.

Yuk sat down with SearchCIO and talked about how her key performance indicator (KPI) methodology, known as WHW, breaks KPIs into simple components and why her research drove her to consider the psychological impact of KPI names. This Q&A has been edited for brevity and clarity.

You recommend teams should have at least three but no more than five KPIs. What’s the science behind that advice?

Mico Yuk, CEO and co-founder of BI Brainz, on KPIs and KPI methodology.Mico Yuk

Mico Yuk: There’s a book from Franklin Covey called The 4 Disciplines of Execution. It’s a fantastic book. In it, he talks about not having more than three WIGS — widely important goals — per team. He did a study and proved that over a long period of time — a year, three months, six months, the typical KPI timeframe for tracking, monitoring and controlling — human beings can only take action and be effective on three goals. Other research firms have said five to eight KPIs are important. Today, I tell people that most report tracking of KPIs is done on mobile devices. It’s been proven that human beings get over 30,000 ads per day, and half of those exist on their phones. You are constantly competing for people’s attention. With shorter attention spans, you have to be precise, you have to be exact, and when you have your user’s attention, you have to make sure they have exactly what they need to take action or you’ll lose them.

The KPI methodology you ascribe to is called WHW. What is WHW?

Yuk: WHW stands for What, How and When. We took Peter Drucker’s SMART concept. Everybody knows him. He’s the ‘If you can’t see it, then you can’t measure it’ guy. His methodology is called SMART, which stands for specific, measurable, accurate, results-oriented, and time-oriented. He says you have to have all five elements in your KPI in order for it to be useful. We said we’re going look at what Drucker was recommending, extract those elements and turn them into a sentence structure. To do this you take any KPI and ask yourself three questions: What do you need to do with it? That’s the W. By how much? That’s the H. By when? That’s the W. You use those answers to rename your KPI so that it reads like this: The action, the KPI name, the how much, and the when. That is SMART hacked.

Why do you find WHW to be a better KPI methodology?

Yuk: It’s easier. We don’t think one KPI methodology is necessarily better than the other. Using OKRs [Objectives and Key Results] are equally as effective, for instance. But we do find that having just a sentence where someone can plug in words is much faster. Imagine going to a company and saying, ‘You have 20 KPIs. We’re going to transform all of them.’ Some of the methodologies require quite a bit of work to get that done. We find that when we show companies a sentence structure and they are able to just answer, answer, answer and see the transformation, it’s an ‘ah-ha’ moment for them. Not to mention there’s the consumption part of it. Now that you’re specific, it also makes it easier to break that big goal down into smaller goals for people to consume.

You’ve said it’s important to rename KPIs, but the language you use is equally as important. What led you to that conclusion?

Yuk: We are data visualization specialists, but when we started nine years ago we found that [our visualizations] were becoming garbage in, garbage out. We kept saying, ‘This looks great, but it’s not effective. Why?’ We then [looked at] what we were visualizing, and we realized that the KPIs we were visualizing were the problem — not the type of charts, not the color, not the prettiness. That led us to say, ‘We’ve got to look at these KPIs closely and figure out how to make these KPIs smarter.’ That was our shared challenge. That led us into learning more about ‘right-brain wording,’ learning about simplicity, learning about exactly what the perfect KPI looks like after we evaluated as many methodologies as we could find on the market. What we concluded is that it all starts with your KPI name.

What is a “right-brain wording?”

Yuk: If you go online and you look up right brain versus left brain [wording], there are amazing diagrams. They show that your right brain controls your creativity while your left brain is more analytical. Most developers use the left side of their brains — analytics, coding, all that complex stuff. The artists of the world, the creatives who may not be able to understand complex math, they use the right part of their brain. But what you find on the creative side is that there is a cortex activity that happens when you use certain words that [are] visceral. We found that it is one thing to rename your KPIs, but it is another thing to get [the wording right] so that it resonates with people.

Let’s take profit margin as an example, and let’s say that after you use our WHW hack, the revised KPI name is ‘increase profit margin by 25% by 2017.’ If I were to ask you to visualize the word increase, you would probably see an arrow that points up. OK, it’s a visual but not one that you have an emotional connection to — it’s a left-brain, analytical word. But if I ask you to visualize a right-brain word like grow, I guarantee you’ll see a green leaf or plant in your brain. What happens in your brain is, because you’re thinking of a leaf, there’s an association that happens. Most people have a personal experience with the word grow — a memory of some kind. But they don’t have the same relationship with the word increase. Because of the association, users are more likely to remember and take action on that KPI. User adoption of KPIs and taking action is a problem. If you take the time to wordsmith or rename the KPIs so that they’re more right-brain-oriented, you can transform how your users act and react to them.

How can CIOs help make employees feel connected to top-line goals with KPIs?

Yuk: After we finish wordsmithing the KPI’s name, we focus on impact. A CIO in New York told me a long time ago, ‘One of the most important things you need to remember is that everybody has to be tuned into WIFM.’ And I asked, ‘What’s that?’ He said, ‘What’s in it for me?’

The good thing about transforming a KPI into the WHW format — it now has the action, the KPI name, the how much, the by when all in the name. You are now able to take that 25% [profit margin goal] and set deadlines and break it down, not just for the year, but by month, by quarter and even by day. You can break it down to the revenue streams that contribute [to the goal] and see what percentage those revenue streams contribute. That’s where you can individualize expectations and actions.

You tend to find two things. Not only can you individualize expectations, but you can also say, now that you have that individual goal, I can show you how it ties back into the overall goal and how other people are performing compared to you. People innately want to be competitive. They want to be on top — the leaderboard syndrome.

Those two elements are keys to having impact with your KPIs. Again, it’s a bit more psychological, but KPIs aren’t working. So we dug deep into the more cognitive side to try to figure out how to make them resonate with people and the [psychological] rabbit hole goes very deep. Start with the name.