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Cornell researchers call for AI transparency in automated hiring

Cornell University is becoming a hotbed of warning about automated hiring systems. In two separate papers, researchers have given the systems considerable scrutiny. Both papers cite problems with AI transparency, or the ability to explain how an AI system reaches a conclusion.

Vendors are selling automated hiring systems partly as a remedy to human bias. But they also argue they can speed up the hiring process and select applicants who will make good employees.

Manish Raghavan, a computer science doctoral student at Cornell who led the most recent study, questions vendors’ claims. If AI is doing a better job than hiring managers, “how do we know that’s the case or when will we know that that’s the case?” he said.

A major thrust of the research is the need for AI transparency. That’s not only needed for the buyers of automated hiring systems, but for job applicants as well.

At Cornell, Raghavan knows students who take AI-enabled tests as part of a job application. “One common complaint that I’ve heard is that it just viscerally feels upsetting to have to perform for a robot,” he said.

Manish Raghavan, a doctoral student in computer science at Cornell UniversityManish Raghavan

A job applicant may have to install an app to film a video interview, play a game that may measure cognitive ability or take a psychometric test that can be used to measure intelligence and personality.

“This sort of feels like they’re forcing you [the job applicant] to invest extra effort, but they’re actually investing less effort into you,” Raghavan said. Rejected applicants won’t know why they were rejected, the standards used to measure their performance, or how they can improve, he said.

Nascent research, lack of regulation

The paper, “Mitigating Bias in Algorithmic Employment Screening: Evaluating Claims and Practices,” is the work of a multidisciplinary team of computer scientists, as well as those with legal and sociological expertise. It argues that HR vendors are not providing insights into automated hiring systems.

One common complaint that I’ve heard is that it just viscerally feels upsetting to have to perform for a robot.
Manish RaghavanDoctoral student in computer science, AI researcher, Cornell University

The researchers looked at the public claims of nearly 20 vendors that sell these systems. Many are startups, although some have been around for more than a decade. They argue that vendors are taking nascent research and translating it into practice “at sort of breakneck pace,” Raghavan said. They’re able to do so because of a lack of regulation.

Vendors can produce data from automated hiring systems that shows how their systems perform in helping achieve diversity, Raghavan said. “Their diversity numbers are quite good,” but they can cherry-pick what data they release, he said. Nonetheless, “it also feels like there is some value being added here, and their clients seem fairly happy with the results.”

But there are two levels of transparency that Raghavan would like to see improve. First, he suggested vendors release internal studies that show the validity of their assessments. The data should include how often vendors are running into issues of disparate impact, which refers to a U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission formula for determining if hiring is having a discriminatory impact on a protected group.

A second step for AI transparency involves having third-party independent researchers do some of their own analysis.

Vendors argue that AI systems do a better job than humans in reducing bias. But researchers see a risk that they could embed certain biases against a group of people that won’t be easily discovered unless there’s an understanding for how these systems work.

One problem often cited is that an AI-enabled system can help improve diversity but still discriminate against certain groups or people. New York University researchers recently noted that most of the AI code today is being written by young white males, who many encode their biases.

Ask about the ‘magic fairy dust’

Ben Eubanks, principal analyst at Lighthouse Research & Advisory, believes the Cornell paper should be on every HR manager’s reading list, “not necessarily because it should scare them away but because it should encourage them to ask more questions about the magic fairy dust behind some technology claims.”

“Hiring is and has always been full of bias,” said Eubanks, who studies AI use in HR. “Algorithms are subject to some of those same constraints, but they can also offer ways to mitigate some of the very real human bias in the process.”

But the motivation for employers may be different, Eubanks said.

“Employers adopting these technologies may be more concerned initially with the outcomes — be it faster hiring, cheaper hiring, or longer retention rates — than about the algorithm actually preventing or mitigating bias,” Eubanks said. That’s what HR managers will likely be rewarded on.

In a separate paper, Ifeoma Ajunwa, assistant professor of labor relations, law and history at Cornell University, argued for independent audits and compulsory data retention in her recently published “Automated Employment Discrimination.”

Ajunwa’s paper raises problems with automated hiring, including systems that “discreetly eliminate applicants from protected categories without retaining a record.” 

AI transparency adds confidence

Still, in an interview, Cornell’s Raghavan was even-handed about using AI and didn’t warn users away from automated hiring systems. He can see use cases but believes there is good reason for caution.

“I think what we can agree on is that the more transparency there is, the easier it will be for us to determine when is or is not the right time or the right place to be using these systems,” Raghavan said.

“A lot of these companies and vendors seem well-intentioned — they think what they’re doing is actually very good for the world,” he said. “It’s in their interest to have people be confident in their practices.”

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For Sale – NUC8I3BEK 240gb NVME, 2x4GB RAM

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.

Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, vesa mount etc etc etc

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Still has protective film on it. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram,HyperX, this is faster CL14 RAM, lifetime warranty
Windows 10 PRO, not activated but it works just as fine

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 290
Delivery: Prefer collection, but can organise delivery
Payment method: bt/ppg/cash
Location: London
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Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

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For Sale – NUC8I3BEK 240gb NVME, 2x4GB RAM

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.

Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, vesa mount etc etc etc

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Still has protective film on it. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram,HyperX, this is faster CL14 RAM, lifetime warranty
Windows 10 PRO, not activated but it works just as fine

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 290
Delivery: Prefer collection, but can organise delivery
Payment method: bt/ppg/cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

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DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

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For Sale – NUC8I3BEK 240gb NVME, 2x4GB RAM

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.

Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, vesa mount etc etc etc

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Still has protective film on it. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram,HyperX, this is faster CL14 RAM, lifetime warranty
Windows 10 PRO, not activated but it works just as fine

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 290
Delivery: Prefer collection, but can organise delivery
Payment method: bt/ppg/cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Go to Original Article
Author:

For Sale – NUC8I3BEK 240gb NVME, 2x4GB RAM

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.

Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, vesa mount etc etc etc

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Still has protective film on it. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram,HyperX, this is faster CL14 RAM, lifetime warranty
Windows 10 PRO, not activated but it works just as fine

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 290
Delivery: Prefer collection, but can organise delivery
Payment method: bt/ppg/cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
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DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

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Author:

For Sale – NUC8I3BEK 240gb NVME, 2x4GB RAM

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.

Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, vesa mount etc etc etc

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Still has protective film on it. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram,HyperX, this is faster CL14 RAM, lifetime warranty
Windows 10 PRO, not activated but it works just as fine

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 290
Delivery: Prefer collection, but can organise delivery
Payment method: bt/ppg/cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

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For Sale – NUC 8i3BEK 240gb 8gb & Deskmini110 275gb 8gb

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.
Very light usage as doing most of my browsing on phone these days and vero 4k in charge of media.
Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, etc etc etc

At the moment I am looking to sell only one and have no preference as very happy with both.

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram, matched sticks for dual channel

Deskmini 110 with PSU, bios up to date.
Intel I3 7320 4.1Ghz, Warranty until Aug 2020
Crucial MX300 275gb SSD, Warranty until Sep 2020
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram, matched sticks for dual channel
Intel AC 7265 wireless card with external antennas
VESA mount

Both come with Windows 10 PRO, fresh with all drivers installed.
Please note, windows is not activated, but you can purchase activation key should you wish.

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 280 & 220
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: Bacs/Cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Go to Original Article
Author:

For Sale – NUC 8i3BEK 240gb 8gb & Deskmini110 275gb 8gb

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.
Very light usage as doing most of my browsing on phone these days and vero 4k in charge of media.
Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, etc etc etc

At the moment I am looking to sell only one and have no preference as very happy with both.

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram, matched sticks for dual channel

Deskmini 110 with PSU, bios up to date.
Intel I3 7320 4.1Ghz, Warranty until Aug 2020
Crucial MX300 275gb SSD, Warranty until Sep 2020
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram, matched sticks for dual channel
Intel AC 7265 wireless card with external antennas
VESA mount

Both come with Windows 10 PRO, fresh with all drivers installed.
Please note, windows is not activated, but you can purchase activation key should you wish.

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 300 & 240
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: Bacs/Cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Go to Original Article
Author:

For Sale – NUC 8i3BEK 240gb 8gb & Deskmini110 275gb 8gb

Baby on the way so starting to clear my gadget empire as it’s becoming serious obsession.
Very light usage as doing most of my browsing on phone these days and vero 4k in charge of media.
Fantastic condition and full working order. Original boxes, etc etc etc

At the moment I am looking to sell only one and have no preference as very happy with both.

NUC8I3BEK with PSU, bios up to date. Warranty until Feb 2022
Adata SX8200 M.2 NVME 240gb, warranty until Aug 2023
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram, matched sticks for dual channel

Deskmini 110 with PSU, bios up to date.
Intel I3 7320 4.1Ghz, Warranty until Aug 2020
Crucial MX300 275gb SSD, Warranty until Sep 2020
2x4gb 2400mhz Ram, matched sticks for dual channel
Intel AC 7265 wireless card with external antennas
VESA mount

Both come with Windows 10 PRO, fresh with all drivers installed.
Please note, windows is not activated, but you can purchase activation key should you wish.

Thanks for looking, any questions please let me know.

Price and currency: 300 & 240
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: Bacs/Cash
Location: London
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

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Author:

Beyond our four walls: How Microsoft is accelerating sustainability progress – Microsoft on the Issues

Our planet is changing — sea levels are rising, weather is becoming more extreme and our natural resources are being depleted faster than the earth’s ecosystems can restore them. These changes pose serious threats to the future of all life on our tiny blue dot, and they challenge us to find new solutions, work together and leverage the diversity of human potential to help right the course.

The good news is that progress is being made across the globe, and non-state actors, from cities to companies to individual citizens, are setting bold commitments and accelerating their work on climate change. But it’s also clear that we all must raise our ambitions, couple that with action and work more swiftly than ever.

At Microsoft, we fully understand and embrace this challenge. That is why, this week, at the Global Climate Action Summit, Microsoft is sharing our vision for a sustainable future — one where everyone everywhere is experiencing and deploying the power of technology to help address climate change and build a more resilient future. We are optimistic about what progress can be made because we are already seeing results of this technology-first enablement approach.

Today, we are unveiling five new tools, partnerships and the results of pilot projects that are already reducing emissions in manufacturing and advancing environmental research and showing immense potential to disrupt the building and energy sectors for a lower-emission future.

These include:

  • A new, open-source tool to find, use and incentivize lower-carbon building materials: To create low-carbon buildings, we need to choose low-carbon building materials. But right now, choosing these materials is challenging because the data is not readily available and what we do have lacks transparency to ensure it’s accurate. We are the first large corporate user of a new tool to track the carbon emissions of raw building materials, introduced by Skanska and supported by the University of Washington Carbon Leadership Forum, Interface and C-Change Labs, called the Embodied Carbon Calculator for Construction (EC3). We’ll use this in our new campus remodel. Our early estimates are that a low-carbon building in Seattle has approximately half the carbon emissions of an average building, so this could have a substantial impact on reducing carbon emissions in our remodel and eventually the entire built environment. We’re proud to not only be piloting it, but that this open-source tool is also running on Microsoft Azure.
  • The results of a “factory of the future” and solar-panel deployment at one of our largest suppliers of China: We partnered with our supplier’s management team to develop and install an energy-smart building solution running on Microsoft Azure to monitor and address issues as they emerge, saving energy and money. Additionally, Microsoft funded a solar panel installation, which generated more than 250,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity in the past fiscal year. This integrated solution is estimated to reduce emissions by approximately 3 million pounds a year.

The successful pilot of a grid-interactive energy storage battery: ​Solving storage is a critical piece of transforming the energy sector. That is why we’re excited to share the results of a new pilot in Virginia, in partnership with Eaton and PJM Interconnection. We used a battery that typically sits in our datacenter as a backup system, hooked it up to the grid to receive signals about when to take in power, when to store it and when to discharge to support the reliability of the system and integration of renewable energy. With thousands of batteries as part of our backup power systems at our datacenters, this pilot has the potential to rapidly scale storage solutions, allowing datacenters to smooth out the unpredictability of wind and solar.

  • New grantees and results from our AI for Earth program: Since we first introduced this grant, training and innovation program last year, we’ve experienced 200 percent growth. We are now supporting 137 grantees in more than 40 countries around the world, as well as doubling the number of larger featured projects we support. We’ve seen early results, too, allowing many people outside the grant program to benefit from our work, allowing us to process more than 10 trillion pixels in ten minutes and less than $50.
  • New LinkedIn online training module for sustainability, the Sustainable Learning Path: LinkedIn is providing new training courses to enable people everywhere to learn and gain job skills to participate in the clean energy economy and low-carbon future. The Sustainable Learning Path offers six hours of expert-created content; initial courses include an overview of sustainability strategies and introductions to LEED credentials and sustainable design. All six courses are unlocked until the end of October, in celebration of the Global Climate Action Summit, and can be accessed here.

While these are just the first proof points of the potential of technology to accelerate the pace of change beyond our four walls, they build on decades of sustainability progress within our operations.  These include operating 100 percent carbon neutral since 2012, purchasing more than 1 gigawatt of renewable energy on three continents, committing to reduce our operational carbon footprint by 75 percent by 2030, and a host of other initiatives. As meaningful as this operational progress is, we know it’s not enough. As a global technology company, we have a responsibility and a tremendous opportunity to help change the course of our planet.

As we look to the future, we’ll realize this opportunity in a few ways. We will use our operations as a test bed for innovation and share new insights about what works. We will work with our customers and suppliers to drive efficiencies that lead to tangible carbon reductions. We will continue to increase access to cloud and AI tools, especially among climate researchers and conservation groups, and work together to develop new tools that can be deployed by others in the field.

We are not naïve. Technology is not a panacea. Time and resources are short, and the task immense. But we refuse to believe that it is insurmountable or too late to build a better future, and we are convinced that technology can play a pivotal role in enabling that progress.

That optimism is borne out of our experience, lessons learned and the drive to create a better future that is core to Microsoft. At GCAS, I will be joined by 10 Microsoft and LinkedIn sustainability leaders, who will be sharing more details about this approach and the news outlined at panel sessions throughout the week, showcasing some of our technology solutions at events we are hosting and supporting the effort with more than 50 employees volunteering their time at GCAS. We are also proud to be an official sponsor of GCAS.

You can find our Microsoft delegation at the following events during the summit, as well as many others throughout the week. And we encourage you to follow us @Microsoft_Green for a full view of our conference activities and engagements, and the official hashtags for news of the event at #GCAS2018 #StepUp 2018.

Find Microsoft at the Global Climate Action Summit — event highlights

September 11, 8:00 a.m. PT: Sustainable Food Services Panel (LinkedIn hosting)

September 12, 9:00 a.m. PT: We Are Still In Forum

 September 12, 2:00 p.m. PT: “Energy, Transportation & Innovation – a Conversation with U.S. Climate Alliance Governors & Business Leaders” (Microsoft hosting)

  • Speaker: Shelley McKinley, General Manager for Technology and Civic Responsibility at Microsoft
  • Watch the livestream: https://aka.ms/CEO_Governors_Live and use #USCAxGCAS to submit questions on Twitter during the event

September 13, 9:00 a.m. PT: World Economic Forum: 4th IR for Earth

  • Speaker: Lucas Joppa, Chief Environmental Officer, Microsoft

September 13, 1:30 p.m. PT: GCAS Breakout Session – “What We Eat and How It’s Grown: Food Systems and Climate”

September 13, 3:00 p.m. PT: Meeting the Paris Goal: Strategies for Carbon Neutrality (Microsoft hosting)

  • Speaker: Elizabeth Willmott, Carbon Program Lead

September 13, 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. PT: We Are Still In Reception at Microsoft

September 14, 8:30 a.m. PT: Clean Energy in Emerging Markets (Microsoft hosting)

September 14, 11:00 a.m. PT: Climate Action Career Fair (LinkedIn hosting)

  • Speaker: Lucas Joppa, Chief Environmental Officer

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