Tag Archives: university

Cornell researchers call for AI transparency in automated hiring

Cornell University is becoming a hotbed of warning about automated hiring systems. In two separate papers, researchers have given the systems considerable scrutiny. Both papers cite problems with AI transparency, or the ability to explain how an AI system reaches a conclusion.

Vendors are selling automated hiring systems partly as a remedy to human bias. But they also argue they can speed up the hiring process and select applicants who will make good employees.

Manish Raghavan, a computer science doctoral student at Cornell who led the most recent study, questions vendors’ claims. If AI is doing a better job than hiring managers, “how do we know that’s the case or when will we know that that’s the case?” he said.

A major thrust of the research is the need for AI transparency. That’s not only needed for the buyers of automated hiring systems, but for job applicants as well.

At Cornell, Raghavan knows students who take AI-enabled tests as part of a job application. “One common complaint that I’ve heard is that it just viscerally feels upsetting to have to perform for a robot,” he said.

Manish Raghavan, a doctoral student in computer science at Cornell UniversityManish Raghavan

A job applicant may have to install an app to film a video interview, play a game that may measure cognitive ability or take a psychometric test that can be used to measure intelligence and personality.

“This sort of feels like they’re forcing you [the job applicant] to invest extra effort, but they’re actually investing less effort into you,” Raghavan said. Rejected applicants won’t know why they were rejected, the standards used to measure their performance, or how they can improve, he said.

Nascent research, lack of regulation

The paper, “Mitigating Bias in Algorithmic Employment Screening: Evaluating Claims and Practices,” is the work of a multidisciplinary team of computer scientists, as well as those with legal and sociological expertise. It argues that HR vendors are not providing insights into automated hiring systems.

One common complaint that I’ve heard is that it just viscerally feels upsetting to have to perform for a robot.
Manish RaghavanDoctoral student in computer science, AI researcher, Cornell University

The researchers looked at the public claims of nearly 20 vendors that sell these systems. Many are startups, although some have been around for more than a decade. They argue that vendors are taking nascent research and translating it into practice “at sort of breakneck pace,” Raghavan said. They’re able to do so because of a lack of regulation.

Vendors can produce data from automated hiring systems that shows how their systems perform in helping achieve diversity, Raghavan said. “Their diversity numbers are quite good,” but they can cherry-pick what data they release, he said. Nonetheless, “it also feels like there is some value being added here, and their clients seem fairly happy with the results.”

But there are two levels of transparency that Raghavan would like to see improve. First, he suggested vendors release internal studies that show the validity of their assessments. The data should include how often vendors are running into issues of disparate impact, which refers to a U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission formula for determining if hiring is having a discriminatory impact on a protected group.

A second step for AI transparency involves having third-party independent researchers do some of their own analysis.

Vendors argue that AI systems do a better job than humans in reducing bias. But researchers see a risk that they could embed certain biases against a group of people that won’t be easily discovered unless there’s an understanding for how these systems work.

One problem often cited is that an AI-enabled system can help improve diversity but still discriminate against certain groups or people. New York University researchers recently noted that most of the AI code today is being written by young white males, who many encode their biases.

Ask about the ‘magic fairy dust’

Ben Eubanks, principal analyst at Lighthouse Research & Advisory, believes the Cornell paper should be on every HR manager’s reading list, “not necessarily because it should scare them away but because it should encourage them to ask more questions about the magic fairy dust behind some technology claims.”

“Hiring is and has always been full of bias,” said Eubanks, who studies AI use in HR. “Algorithms are subject to some of those same constraints, but they can also offer ways to mitigate some of the very real human bias in the process.”

But the motivation for employers may be different, Eubanks said.

“Employers adopting these technologies may be more concerned initially with the outcomes — be it faster hiring, cheaper hiring, or longer retention rates — than about the algorithm actually preventing or mitigating bias,” Eubanks said. That’s what HR managers will likely be rewarded on.

In a separate paper, Ifeoma Ajunwa, assistant professor of labor relations, law and history at Cornell University, argued for independent audits and compulsory data retention in her recently published “Automated Employment Discrimination.”

Ajunwa’s paper raises problems with automated hiring, including systems that “discreetly eliminate applicants from protected categories without retaining a record.” 

AI transparency adds confidence

Still, in an interview, Cornell’s Raghavan was even-handed about using AI and didn’t warn users away from automated hiring systems. He can see use cases but believes there is good reason for caution.

“I think what we can agree on is that the more transparency there is, the easier it will be for us to determine when is or is not the right time or the right place to be using these systems,” Raghavan said.

“A lot of these companies and vendors seem well-intentioned — they think what they’re doing is actually very good for the world,” he said. “It’s in their interest to have people be confident in their practices.”

Go to Original Article
Author:

For Sale – Desktop PC – 3770K, 970gtx, 16GB Ram

Selling my old desktop PC now that I’ve finished university and no longer use it all that much.

Specs:

Graphics Card: Galax 970GTX EXOC
Power Supply: Corsair TX550M
Mother Board: Asus P8Z77-M
Case: Fractal Define Mini
Ram: 16GB 1600mhz
Storage: Evo 850 500GB SSD and 500GB Hard Drive
CPU: Intel 3770k
CPU Cooler: Noctua (not sure of the model)

Great system, just not being used any more.

Collection preferred so it can be seen working, I’m in the Cambridge area and can deliver if required.

£300

Go to Original Article
Author:

Helping first responders achieve more with autonomous systems and AirSim

With inputs from: Elizabeth Bondi (Harvard University), Bob DeBortoli (Oregon State University), Balinder Malhi (Microsoft) and Jim Piavis (Microsoft)

Autonomous systems have the potential to improve safety for people in dangerous jobs, particularly first responders. However, deploying these systems is a difficult task that requires extensive research and testing.

In April, we explored complexities and challenges present in the development of autonomous systems and how technologies such as AirSim provide a pragmatic way to solve these tasks. Microsoft believes that the key to building robust and safe autonomous systems is providing a system with a wide range of training experiences to properly expose it to many scenarios before it can be deployed in the real world. This ensures training is done in a meaningful way—similar to how a student might be trained to tackle complex tasks through a curriculum curated by a teacher.

With autonomous systems, first responders gain sight into the unknown

One way Microsoft trains autonomous systems is through participating in unique research opportunities focused on solving real-world challenges, like aiding first responders in hazardous scenarios. Recently, our collaborators at Carnegie Mellon University and Oregon State University, collectively named Team Explorer, demonstrated technological breakthroughs in this area during their first-place win at the first round of the DARPA Subterranean (SubT) Challenge.

Snapshots from the AirSim simulation showing the effects of different conditions such as water vapor, dust and heavy smoke. Such variations in conditions can provide useful data when building robust autonomous systems.

Snapshots from the AirSim simulation showing the effects of different conditions such as water vapor, dust and heavy smoke. Such variations in conditions can provide useful data when building robust autonomous systems.

The DARPA SubT Challenge aspires to further the technologies that would augment difficult operations underground. Specifically, the challenge focuses on the methods to map, navigate, and search complex underground environments. These underground environments include human-made tunnel systems, urban underground, and natural cave networks. Imagine constrained environments that are several kilometers long and structured in unique ways with regular or irregular geological topologies and patterns. Weather or other hazardous conditions, due to poor ventilation or poisonous gasses, often make first responders’ work even more dangerous.

Team Explorer engaged in autonomous search and detection of several artifacts within a man-made system of tunnels. The end-to-end solution that the team created required many different complex components to work across the challenging circuit including mobility, mapping, navigation, and detection.

Microsoft’s Autonomous Systems team worked closely with Team Explorer to provide a high-definition simulation environment to help with the challenge. The team used AirSim to create an intricate maze of man-made tunnels in a virtual world that was representative of such real-world tunnels, both in complexity as well as size. The virtual world was a hybrid synthesis, where a team of artists used reference material from real-world mines to modularly generate a network of interconnected tunnels spanning two kilometers in length spread over a large area.

Additionally, the simulation included robotic vehicles—wheeled robots as well as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—and a suite of sensors that adorned the autonomous agents. AirSim provided a rich platform that Team Explorer could use to test their methods along with generate training experiences for creating various decision-making components for the autonomous agents.

At the center of the challenge was the ability for the robots to perceive the underground terrain and discover things (such as human survivors, backpacks, cellular phones, fire extinguishers, and power drills) while adjusting to different weather and lighting conditions. Multimodal perception is important in challenging environments, as well as AirSim’s ability to simulate a wide variety of sensors, and their fusion can provide a competitive edge. One of the most important sensors is a LIDAR, and in AirSim, the physical process of generating the point clouds are carefully reconstructed in software, so the sensor used on the robot in simulation uses the same configuration parameters (such as number-of-channels, range, points-per-second, rotations-per-second, horizontal/vertical FOVs, and more) as those found on the real vehicle.

It is challenging to train perception modules based on deep learning models to detect the target objects using LIDAR point clouds and RGB cameras. While curated datasets, such as ScanNet and MS COCO, exist for more canonical applications, none exist for underground exploration applications. Creating a real dataset for underground environments is expensive because a dedicated team is needed to first deploy the robot, gather the data, and then label the captured data. Microsoft’s ability to create near-realistic autonomy pipelines in AirSim means that we can rapidly generate labeled training data for a subterranean environment.

Detecting animal poaching through drone simulations

With autonomous systems, the issues with collection data are further exacerbated for applications that involve first line responders since the collection process is itself dangerous. Such challenges were present in our collaboration with Air Shepherd and USC to help counter wildlife poaching.

The central task in this collaboration was the development of UAVs equipped with thermal infrared cameras that can fly through national parks at night to search for poachers and animals. The project had several challenges, the largest of which was building such a system that requires data for both training as well as testing purposes. For example, labeling a real-world dataset, which was provided by Air Shepherd, took approximately 800 hours over the course of 6 months to complete. This produced 39,380 labeled frames and approximately 180,000 individual poacher and animal labels on those frames. This data was used to build a prototype detection system called SPOT but did not produce acceptable precision and recall values.

AirSim was then used to create a simulation, where virtual UAVs flew over virtual environments like those found in the Central African savanna at an altitude from 200 to 400 feet above ground level. The simulation took on the difficult task of detecting poachers and wildlife, both during the day and at night, and ultimately ended up increasing the precision in detection through imaging by 35.2%.

Driving innovation through simulation

Access to simulation environments means that we have a near-infinite data generation machine, where different simulation parameters can be chosen to generate experiences at will. This capability is foundational to test and debug autonomous systems that eventually would be provably robust and certified. We continue to investigate such fuzzing and falsification framework for various AI systems.

Holistic challenges such as the DARPA SubT Challenge, and partnerships with organizations like Air Shepherd allow researchers and developers to build complete solutions that cover a wide array of research topics. There are many research challenges at the intersection of robotics, simulations, and machine intelligence that we continue to invest in our journey to build toolchains, enabling researchers and developers to build safe and useful simulations and robots.

We invite readers to explore AirSim on our GitHub repository and invest in our journey to build toolchains in collaboration with the community. The AirSim network of man-made caves environment was co-created with Team Explorer for the DARPA SubT Challenge and is publicly available for researchers and developers.

Go to Original Article
Author: Microsoft News Center

For Sale – Macbook Pro 13.3″ (2017) Core i5 2.3Ghz, 512Gb HDD, 8Gb RAM

For Sale as the good lady is going back to University and her needs are slightly different.

This was purchased in January but has never been used as we never moved her over from her old machine.

It is complete with Box, obviously ‘As New’. Power supply and USB-C charge cable are brand new and unused.

Spec is:

Macbook Pro 13.3″
Space Gray
2.3Ghz Core i5
8Gb RAM
512Gb SSD

In warranty until 21st January 2020 – and still valid for AppleCare purchase should you wish.

Full specs can be found on

Apple

I’ll leave it here as an Exclusive for a few days but I have an eBay promo so will list it on there also on Sunday

IMG_1053.JPG IMG_1087.JPG IMG_1114.JPG IMG_1115.JPG IMG_1116.JPG Screenshot 2019-08-23 at 12.44.20.png

Price and currency: 1000
Delivery: Delivery cost is included within my country
Payment method: PPG Preferred BT Available
Location: Worcester, UK
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I have no preference

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Go to Original Article
Author:

For Sale – Macbook Pro 13.3″ (2017) Core i5 2.3Ghz, 512Gb HDD, 8Gb RAM

For Sale as the good lady is going back to University and her needs are slightly different.

This was purchased in January but has never been used as we never moved her over from her old machine.

It is complete with Box, obviously ‘As New’. Power supply and USB-C charge cable are brand new and unused.

Spec is:

Macbook Pro 13.3″
Space Gray
2.3Ghz Core i5
8Gb RAM
512Gb SSD

In warranty until 21st January 2020 – and still valid for AppleCare purchase should you wish.

Full specs can be found on

Apple

I’ll leave it here as an Exclusive for a few days but I have an eBay promo so will list it on there also on Sunday

IMG_1053.JPG IMG_1087.JPG IMG_1114.JPG IMG_1115.JPG IMG_1116.JPG Screenshot 2019-08-23 at 12.44.20.png

Price and currency: 1000
Delivery: Delivery cost is included within my country
Payment method: PPG Preferred BT Available
Location: Worcester, UK
Advertised elsewhere?: Advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I have no preference

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Go to Original Article
Author:

Wanted – 12-13 inch Windows Laptop

Hi all,

I’m looking for a small windows laptop, between 12-13 inches for effectively, university use.
Microsoft Office, Internet browsing, Netflix etc but small/light enough to carry around and transport.

Does anyone one have such a laptop they are looking to sell?

Thanks,

Ben

Location: Nottingham

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Robot social engineering works because people personify robots

Brittany “Straithe” Postnikoff is a graduate researcher at the University of Waterloo in Ontario who has been researching robot social engineering — the intersection of human-robot interaction and security and privacy — for the past four years.

Postnikoff has found human-robot interaction (HRI) to be surprisingly close to human-human interaction in many cases, which piqued her interest into the security and privacy concerns that could arise if robots were used in social engineering attacks. Her research has included using cameras on robots to spy on people, getting victims to give personal information and even using a robot to change people’s opinions.

Although her research is still in early days, Postnikoff has found striking results, not the least of which is how little security is built in to consumer robots on the market today.

How did you begin studying robot social engineering? Did you start on the social engineering side or on the robotics side?
 
Brittany ‘Straithe’ Postnikoff: I guess I started on the social engineering side, but I didn’t understand that at the time. For background, I collect post-secondary pieces of paper. I have college diplomas in both business administration and business information technology. And in both of those programs, I acquired people management skills, which I learned were useful in social engineering attacks when I attended DEF CON for the first time.
 
As for robot social engineering, I casually began studying this topic shortly after I started university to get my computer science degree. I had joined a very small robotics team, and within my first three months of university, the team flew to China for a competition.

During this competition, the robots and the humans on the team wore matching blue jerseys and toques that looked like Jayne’s from ‘Firefly.’ You can look up ‘Jennifer the Skiing Robot’ to see what we looked like.

So many people stopped my teammate and I during the competition to take photos with us and our robots. We noticed this wasn’t happening to the other teams. What was really interesting to me was that people cheered for us and our robots even if we were their competition.

I wondered why. Why are people cheering for our robot instead of theirs? Why are we getting all this extra attention? It’s then I started to see opportunities to blend my marketing and human resources knowledge with robots, security and privacy.

Luckily, my undergraduate university was also host to a human-robot interaction lab. I joined the lab the next semester and learned about concepts like robot use of authority, body positioning and gesturing from my senior researchers that are the foundation of the robot social engineering research that I now pursue full time.

Are there any major differences between what people would normally think of as social engineering and robot social engineering?
 
Postnikoff: Well, the biggest and clearest difference is that the attack is performed by a robot instead of a human. Otherwise, the base attacks are generally quite close to human-performed attacks.

Like a human, robots can make use of authority to convince people to do things; they can make use of empathy to convince someone to take particular actions and so on. What is important for a robot social engineering attack is that the robot has a body and it’s able to interact with humans on a social level.

The interesting thing about the embodiment of a robot is that people will believe each physical robot is its own individual entity, especially if the robot is known to act autonomously. It doesn’t normally occur to people that a typically autonomous robot acting erratically might have been taken over by a third party.
 
In researching your work, it appears that the human empathy toward the robot is a big part of the attack. Is that right?
 
Postnikoff: Yes, just like with some human-performed social engineering attacks, robots that are able to interact on a social level with humans can make use of a victim’s empathetic side in order to perform some attacks. For example, a malicious entity could infect a robot with ransomware and only restore the robot once the ransom has been paid.

If it’s a robot that someone is extremely attached to, in need of, or if they have put a lot of work into personalizing the robot and training it, this could be a particularly devastating attack.

What is next in your robot social engineering research?
 
Postnikoff: Next in my research is performing more attacks in both controlled environments and in the wild in order to collect some stats on how effective it really is. I think it’s important to determine how widespread this issue could become. Hopefully, I’ll be able to post those results publicly in a couple months.
 
How does artificial intelligence factor into your research into robot social engineering?
 
Postnikoff: Artificial intelligence is very important, but tangential to the research that I’m currently pursuing. In HRI, we often use the ‘Wizard of Oz’ technique, which involves a person sitting behind a curtain — or in a different room — and controlling the robot while another person is in the same room as the robot and interacting with it. The people interacting with the robot often can’t tell that the robot is being controlled and will assume that the robot is acting on its own. For this reason, I don’t spend time researching AI, because we can fake it effectively enough for our purposes at this time.

Many other experts are working on AI, and my time is better spent focusing on how the physical embodiment of robots and the actions of robots can impact the people they interact with.
 
How many robots do you have right now?
 
Postnikoff: Right now, I have direct access to about 30 robots, but I only have five different models of robots. Thankfully, I have a lot of friends and contacts who are in other universities and companies that are willing to let me play with their robots and complete tests and experiments once in a while.

Sometimes, I help them set up their own experiments to try with the robots, and they let me know what happened as a result. Or, I provide them with the background information and resources they need for their own research. Additionally, people will send me robots to perform experiments on if I promise to do security assessments on them.

To me, these are all win-win scenarios.
 
Are they all consumer robots?

 
Postnikoff: For the most part, yes. I try and work though all the different types of robots — consumer, industrial, medical and so on. But, unfortunately, many of the medical and industrial robots are quite pricey and are harder to get access to. This leaves me to experiment primarily with consumer robots.

Consumer robots are also more likely to be widespread, which does offer some benefits considering the research that I do — especially when I can show what sorts of things I can do inside somebody’s home. Saying that, much of my research also applies to what can happen inside companies that make use of robots — banks and malls — when they don’t understand what can be done with a social robot if it’s not adequately secured.
 
How have you found the security to be in the robots you use?
 
Postnikoff: Not great. A number of the robots I deal with really do need a lot of help. And that’s one reason why I’m trying to bring awareness of this topic to the security and privacy community, especially before robots become more widespread.

What’s interesting here is that the topic of robot security overlaps heavily with IoT security, and most of what is being done in that field to make devices more secure also applies to robots.
 
With the robots that you use where you’re controlling them, is it generally difficult to get control access?
 
Postnikoff: It depends on the robot, but many are surprisingly easy to gain control over. There were some first-year computer science students at my university that I was mentoring, and after a bit of instruction and background, they were able to get into the robots, even though they had no experience doing this sort of thing just hours before.

A number of the robots I looked at have had default credentials, sent usernames and passwords in plaintext, transmitted unencrypted video streams and so on. These are a lot of the same problems that plague many of the other devices that people in this industry see.
 
What kinds of robot social engineering attacks have you run?

Postnikoff: One of my favorite attacks is putting snacks on top of the Roomba-like robot as a way to get access into a locked space.

First, I research who might be in the space, then write that person’s name on a nameplate and put it on the robot, along with the robot’s nametag and the snacks. I use an app to drive the robot to the door, and I get it to run into the door a few times. People hear the robot’s knock, answer the door and might let it in. Meanwhile, I’m able to use the app to look through the robot’s camera and hear through its microphones to absorb what is happening in the space.

There is a paper out by [Serena] Booth et al. called ‘Piggybacking Robots‘ that does a great job of describing a similar attack that inspired me to try this. So, if you ever try one of those food delivery robots that are in D.C. or the Silicon Valley area, you might not want to let them into your house if you don’t have to. You never know who might be piggybacking on the robot’s camera or video feed.
 
Do you have to be within Bluetooth range to be able to control the robots, or can they be controlled over the internet?
 
Postnikoff: Some yes; others no. A lot of the robots that I’m personally dealing with have remote-access capabilities. That is actually a common feature that companies selling consumer robots like to boast about. They might say that if you want to check if your front door is locked, you can hop into the robot, point it at your door and use the robot’s camera to check if the door is locked. That might be great for you, but this same capability is also pretty great for an attacker if they can get remote access.
 
Is there anything else people should know about robot social engineering research?
 
Postnikoff: Robot social engineering attacks are starting to happen in the wild. I have had a number of groups approach me with incidents involving their social robots that could easily be classified as robot social engineering attacks. If we start focusing on this issue now, we can prevent greater issues in the future.

Wanted – 12-13 inch Windows Laptop

Hi all,

I’m looking for a small windows laptop, between 12-13 inches for effectively, university use.
Microsoft Office, Internet browsing, Netflix etc but small/light enough to carry around and transport.

Does anyone one have such a laptop they are looking to sell?

Thanks,

Ben

Location: Nottingham

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Wanted – 12-13 inch Windows Laptop

Hi all,

I’m looking for a small windows laptop, between 12-13 inches for effectively, university use.
Microsoft Office, Internet browsing, Netflix etc but small/light enough to carry around and transport.

Does anyone one have such a laptop they are looking to sell?

Thanks,

Ben

Location: Nottingham

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

Wanted – 12-13 inch Windows Laptop

Hi all,

I’m looking for a small windows laptop, between 12-13 inches for effectively, university use.
Microsoft Office, Internet browsing, Netflix etc but small/light enough to carry around and transport.

Does anyone one have such a laptop they are looking to sell?

Thanks,

Ben

Location: Nottingham

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.