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MU-MIMO technology boosts system capacity for WLANs

It was legendary science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke who wrote, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”

Many would put wireless LAN in the magical category. And if that’s the case, multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) and, most recently, multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) technology would really have to be the rabbits in the hat. Even those of us who’ve spent the majority of our careers in wireless networking are amazed at what those technologies can do.

MIMO’s been with us since 802.11n, and it unlocked the amazing performance improvements that extend into the current era. Yet, MIMO is still little understood, even among many network engineers. No surprise there, as MIMO seems to violate many of the laws that govern communications theory.

In a nutshell, MIMO technology takes two-dimensional radio waves — you can think of them as having just frequency and amplitude, which are the variables that we use to modulate a carrier signal, thus embossing the information we wish to transmit on this simple structure — and makes them three-dimensional. The third dimension is space, and that’s why MIMO is often referred to as spatial multiplexing. More dimensions result in a greater capacity to carry information. That’s why MIMO yields such amazing results, without violating any physical laws whatsoever.

Overcoming the wireless interference problem

But there’s more to the performance of wireless communications than simply cramming more bits into a given transmission cycle. Wireless has historically been a serial-access medium: Only one transmitter can be active in any given location at a particular frequency at any given moment in time. Two transmitters in close proximity attempting simultaneous transmission will likely cause mutual interference and at least some degradation to overall system capacity. While licensed radio services, like cellular, can schedule transmissions to avoid this problem, the unlicensed bands have no such controls; stations cannot coordinate with one another and must accept as reality any interference they encounter.

Now, several stations can receive the data they need with less overall waiting. System capacity goes up.

In response, the wireless industry developed many techniques to deal with the potential damage inherent in interference, mostly related to how information is modulated and coded before it’s sent over the air. But a large problem remains: Only one station can transmit at any moment in time. Until recently, this has meant only one receiving client station could be served — again, at any moment in time — and any others desiring communication would have to wait. The result: Overall system capacity was limited.

And that’s just the problem MU-MIMO technology solves. In yet another incarnation of magic, MU-MIMO enables an access point to transmit — simultaneously — to multiple clients in one transmit cycle, with each client receiving a unique data stream from the others also sent at the same time. Now, several stations can receive the data they need with less overall waiting. System capacity goes up. And more users go home — or, better said, stay at work — happy.

802.11ax standard introduces new flavor of MU-MIMO technology

Now, how this technique is actually implemented is so complex that the math involved would make great bedtime reading. Suffice it to say, MU-MIMO technology works very, very well — Farpoint Group’s own testing shows performance gains close to the theoretical maximum. Your mileage will likely vary, but the potential here is enormous. The upcoming 802.11ax standard is expected to add bi-directional MU-MIMO, meaning stations will be able to transmit simultaneously to an access point. Now, we’re talking real magic.

Farpoint Group recommends new Wi-Fi infrastructure and client purchases specify support for MU-MIMO — yes, you’ll need new gear on both ends; field upgrades are not possible in most cases. But you’ll be glad you specified this requirement. Of course, MU-MIMO technology isn’t really magic, but it certainly looks that way.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
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Location: Lancashire
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For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

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  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

For Sale – Offers for 27″ iMac and 27″ iMac Cinema Display

Looking for offers on my late 2011 27″ iMac and 27″ Mac Cinema display. Inc. EXT BluRay writer – LG , magic Apple Trackpad, wired full Apple Keyboard, wireless Apple keyboard – extra £25 )

iMac = 3.4 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 1333 MHz DDR3, AMD Radeon HD 6970M 2048 MB
i TB HDD ( replaced before failure within last 12 months. ).

27″ Mac Cinema Display ( Thunderbolt ) – same resolution.

All in A condition.

Bought to edit videos which I no longer do. All perform well.

I’m selling this as I have limited time left and there’s a good chance my girlies will almost chuck it in a skip ( perhaps wait until then ? ).

I hope I’ve observed the rules, it’s been a while!

Col.

Price and currency: Offers GBP
Delivery: Delivery cost is not included
Payment method: BT
Location: Lancashire
Advertised elsewhere?: Not advertised elsewhere
Prefer goods collected?: I prefer the goods to be collected

______________________________________________________
This message is automatically inserted in all classifieds forum threads.
By replying to this thread you agree to abide by the trading rules detailed here.
Please be advised, all buyers and sellers should satisfy themselves that the other party is genuine by providing the following via private conversation to each other after negotiations are complete and prior to dispatching goods and making payment:

  • Landline telephone number. Make a call to check out the area code and number are correct, too
  • Name and address including postcode
  • Valid e-mail address

DO NOT proceed with a deal until you are completely satisfied with all details being correct. It’s in your best interest to check out these details yourself.

The omnichannel contact center is now mandatory

In May of 1897, American writer Mark Twain was rumored to have died. When he was told about this, Twain said, “The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated.” If Twain had been a technology, he would have been voice communications. Every year, it seems, someone declares voice is dead, particularly in the contact center.

With so many communications channels now, voice is seemingly discarded in an omnichannel contact center. We now live in a world of texting, chatting, self-service and tweets, which must spell doom for voice, right? Well, not exactly.

Reports of voice’s death appear to be greatly exaggerated, according to the results of a recent survey by cloud contact-center vendor Five9 Inc. 

The online survey, conducted by research firm Zogby Analytics, polled 1,138 U.S. adults, ranging in age from 18 to retirees in their 70s. The survey asked these consumer respondents to assess the role of customer service in consumer behavior and purchasing decisions, as well as their communication preferences.

All age ranges prefer voice

In aggregate, 54% of respondents said the phone is their preferred mode of communication. Email, at 19%, and chat, at 15%, were distant second and third preferences.

You might look at this data and think this makes sense in aggregate, but the number must be skewed by older people, since millennials are obviously anti-voice. This is partially true, but not the whole story. The survey found a generational bias toward voice based on age, but the gap is not as big as you’d think.

Retirees, ages 70 or older, had the highest percentage of respondents whose top preference was voice, with 76%. As the age group declined, so did the preference for voice communications. But, in every case, voice was still the most preferred communications channel. 

Seventy-two percent of baby boomers, ages 55 to 69, selected voice as the top response. Generation X, ages 35 to 54, was at 48%. Older millennials, ages 25 to 34, were at 41%. And younger millennials, ages 18 to 24, used voice 38% of the time. In all age groups, except retirees, email and chat had double-digit representation, with the younger millennial group using those tools the most.

Omnichannel contact center links data

The data certainly underscores the importance of voice, but also the need for an omnichannel contact center. Most contact centers have implemented multichannel systems, but that’s not sufficient moving forward. 

Multichannel offers a range of discrete communication options, such as voice, chat, email and self-service. An omnichannel contact center is similar, except the data can be shared among the channels. 

Businesses need to prioritize evolving their contact centers to omnichannel systems.

For example, a customer may start an interaction using chat and enter a loyalty number and other information. After getting frustrated, the customer decides to switch to voice and places a call. With a multichannel service, all the information would have to be re-entered into an interactive voice response or relayed verbally to an agent. With an omnichannel contact center, the data is passed along to the agent, which saves time and alleviates frustration.

The Five9 survey also asked consumers about their expectation on the time taken to solve a support question. Nineteen percent of respondents expect to have their issues resolved in under five minutes, and 46% under 15 minutes. Multichannel systems can waste precious time, as they require the customer to provide the same information — often multiple times.

The growth of social media, chat and other communications mediums has sparked speculation that voice in the contact center is on life support. The data from the survey shows that voice is not only still alive, but it’s the preferred mode of communication across all age groups. 

However, at the same time, voice alone is not enough now. Businesses need to prioritize evolving their contact centers to omnichannel systems.